Boron (B) is one of the essential micronutrients for sunflower that is required in rather large quantity to achieve a good yield. A field trial comparing boron foliar application rates (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 g B/ha) to sunflower's response was carried out on the loamy sand soil in Thu Duc district, Hochiminh City, Vietnam. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The results showed that foliar boron application improved plant growth, development, and quality of sunflower seeds. The highest plant height (97.04 cm), number of leaves (31.3), shoot diameter (2.68 cm), number of seeds/head (743.4), seed yield (1.26 ton/ha), and total protein content (281.0 mg/g) were obtained at vate of 600 g B/ha. The seed yield strongly correlated with the number of seeds/head (r = 0.99**), less closely correlated with the weight of 1000 seeds (r = 0.35), but not associated with total protein and total amino acids contents in seeds. The maximum profit to sale was achieved at the treatment of 600 g B/ha.
The changes in soil organic matter due to long-term manuring were conducted the experiments at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University research farm, Gazipur. Soil samples from long-term field experiment were collected (after 16 years) to study the changes in soil organic matter pools and fractionation of humic substances in soils. The application of organic residues and green manuring increased humin, humic and fulvic acid carbon, total and water soluble organic carbon of soil. The effect of organic materials on different carbon fractions was found up to 45 cm soil depths. Total nitrogen of soil was increased significantly with the application of organic manures. Nitrogen application increased not only increased soil nitrogen but also soil carbon.
Sorghum is a major cereal crop among farmers and has a lot of food security importance in Kwara State. There has been paucity of empirical information in the area of adaptation strategies to climate change in relation to sorghum production in Kwara State, and to sustain the yields of sorghum in Nigeria, there is need for assessing climate change adaptation strategies among sorghum farmers in the State. This study was therefore designed to: 1) identify adaptation strategies to climate change used in sorghum production; 2) identify the constraints to climate change adaptation strategies; 3) estimate the costs implication of adaptation strategies to sorghum yield in the study area; 4) examine the determinants of sorghum farmer’s choice to the usage of climate change adaptation strategies and 5) determine the determinants of investment on adaptation strategies. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from 145 sorghum farmers that were randomly selected from the 5 LGAs in Zone C of the KWADP.A three-stage random sampling technique was used to select the sampled sorghum farming households used for the study. Major tools of analysis for the study included descriptive statistics, 5 points likert-type scale, correlation analysis and multinomial logistic regression and ordinary least square regression for the respective objectives. Findings from the study showed that the costs of using more adaptation strategies have positive relationship with the sorghum yield. The multinomial logistic regression indicated that household size significantly affects the use of adaptation strategies among sorghum farmers in the study area and the reference category is high level of usage of adaptation strategies. It was discovered with the aid of ordinary least square regression that the number of strategies used, farming as source of income, farm income and farm size have positive relationship with the costs incurred by farmers. The implication of the findings of the study is that all adaptation strategies to climate change, in sorghum production are necessary while the farmers use more of the strategies common to them and less of others. The larger the household size and farm size, the better the yield, because these ensure high number of usage of adaptation strategies. The study recommended that farmers should be trained and supported on the use of more adaptation strategies. Policies that will increase development and farmers’ assess to improved sorghum varieties should be encouraged.
In order to investigating combining ability of the inbred lines for grain yield and other traits, 10 F1 hybrids of maize with the 10 S7 parental lines and a control cultivar were studied in a randomized complete block design at Kermanshah Mahidasht stations in 2013. The yield and its component traits were measured. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in most traits measured at 1 %. Comparison of the mean showed significant differences between the hybrids were much greater than that resulted in lines. To screen good combination and high yield, topcross analysis showed, that the combination of production lines, KLM80039, KLM80043, KLM80044, KLM80049 and KLM80001 with the MO17 tester has a particular superiority and also was identified as high-performance genotypes and yield components to comparison with control varieties (704). This study suggested that the hybrids KLM80026 × MO17, KLM80039 × MO17, KLM80043 × MO17, KLM80049 × MO17 and KLM80001 × MO17 were promising single cross hybrids and could be used in the maize breeding program.
The demand of marine frozen fish is increasing day by day both in domestic and export market. To attain the main objective of the present study, value chain of marine frozen fish was addressed to determine the values added to marketed fish in different steps of marketing channels. Data were collected for two successive years 2013-14 from 240respondents using interview schedules and checklist, and 10 major species of marine fish were considered for the present study. Several FGDs were conducted to have detailed information from the stakeholders involved in supply or value chain system of marine frozen fish marketed. The study areas were purposively selected and three types of market such as primary market, secondary market and consumer market were studied. The contribution, activities and performance of actors involved in transaction of respective species of marine frozen fish both in domestic and export market were identified. Out of six supply chains, the chain ‘Fisherman/Boat owner → Landing station arat/ Local arat → Bepari → Inter-district aratder agent → Retailer → Consumer’ was the most important supply chain through which 40% frozen fish reach to consumers. Average marketing cost was lower in primary market compared to secondary and consumer market. High priced fish demanded a high marketing cost resulting higher marketing margin and profit compared to low priced fish. High valued species of fish were exported but also claimed higher cost for its processing and marketing. Actually, marketing margin of respective species of marine frozen fish at each level of market is the added value of that particular species of fish.
This study assessed the perception of commercial poultry farm neighbours on environmental issues associated with commercial poultry farming in kogi and kwara states, Nigeria.A total of 500 respondents were purposively selected for the study. Primary data was collected with the use of structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed for the study. Results of analysis show that mean age of respondents was 34.8 years, most were male (57.9%), married (59.4%), and had tertiary education (59.0%). Average distance of farm to nearest neighbour’s residence was 0.36km. Neighbours’ opinion of poultry farm as source of pollution was high (95.6%). Commercial poultry farms’ neighbours’ perceived knowledge on environmental issues was also high (mean=4.01). Level of complaints on environmental pollution among poultry farms’ neighbours was high (54.6%) and environmental effects of commercial poultry farming activities on neighbours was also high (mean=3.02). The Multiple regression results revealed that neighbours’ years in residence (β=0.203) and distance between neighbour and farm (β= -0.180) were significantly related to perceived knowledge of commercial poultry farms’ neighbours on environmental issues. Also, incidence of environmental pollution complaints by neighbours was significantly influenced by level of education (β= 0.126), years in residence (β= 0.221), distance between neighbour residence and farm (β= -0.256) and level of friendliness (-0.165). The study concluded that the perception of commercial poultry farms’ neighbours in Kogi and Kwara States on environmental issues associated with poultry farming was high. The study recommends among others the need for appropriate distance between poultry farms and residences to be determined and enforced by regulatory authority. This will help to mitigate the effects of environmental pollution /health hazards on the neighbours.
Cocoa‚ unlike other industrialized crops‚ comes from small production units in underdeveloped countries in Africa‚ Asia and Latin America. Yields per hectare‚ in these family-run units‚ depend on a variety of factor‚among which we can mention: region‚ growing and harvesting techniques and type of cocoa trees. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the morphological characterization (i.e. fruit and bean size‚ weight and shape) from different cocoa trees cultivated with different sources of fertilizers (chemicals‚ organic and combined) in an experimental farm in Merida‚ Venezuela. Discriminant analysis, a multivariate data analysis technique‚ was employed in order to classify cocoa trees with higher yields depending on the fertilizer used. The main finding of the study is that beans with higher weight and size were obtained from trees cultivated with organic fertilizer. Meanwhile‚ the cocoa trees fertilized with chemicals‚ had beans with lower weight and size. These results could prove relevant for state-agencies in charge of promoting sustainable growing and harvesting techniques to agricultural farmers in underdeveloped countries‚ particularly in Latin America.
The experiment was conducted at laboratory of Postharvest Technology Section, Horticulture Research Centre, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur during May 2014 to select suitable additives for minimal processing of litchi. The aril of cultivar ‘Bedana’ was evaluated in respect of self life, pH, TSS, total sugar, reducing sugar, non reducing sugar, color and sensory quality by using different combination of chemicals like T1= 0.5% Ascorbic Acid + 2.0% Sorbital + 1.0% CaCl2 + 1.5% Ca-lactate, T2= 0.5% Citric Acid + 2.0% Sorbital + 1.0% CaCl2 + 1.5% Ca-lactate, T3= 0.5% Ascorbic Acid + 1.0%CaCl2 and T4= 0.5% Citric Acid + 1.0% CaCl2 and stored at refrigerator (4±1oC). Treatment T4 showed better shelf life (13 days) over all treatments retaining better color and quality.
In order to determine interactive effect between genotype and environment and also to select the most stable genotypes with high yield especially under drought conditions, thirty genotypes were compared. A randomized complete blocks design was used under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in two years. The simple analysis of variance for grain yield in each environment and each year showed the high significant differences among the genotypes. From combined analysis of variance, significant differences among the genotypes (genotype×environment, genotype×year, year×environment and genotype×year×environment) were observed. Our data revealed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all stability parameters. Moreover, the three improved genotypes including Sepidrood, Nemat and Kadous were known as thexd stable genotypes with the highest yield in both conditions during two years and can be recommended for drought- prone environments.
An experiment on tomato was conducted at the Net House Premises of Soil Science Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute; Gazipur during the winter season from Nov.2013 to Feb. 2014. The major objective of the study was to assess the salinity tolerance ability of promising tomato genotypes in order to identifying the salt tolerant ones. Six levels (1.14, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 dS m-1) of irrigation water salinity were imposed to three genotypes of tomato V1 (BARI Hybrid Tomato 4), V2 (BARI Hybrid Tomato 5) and V3 (BARI Hybrid Tomato 8). The pot experiment was set up in a Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. Salinity was imposed as per treatments at the pre-flowering stage two times at 45 and 55 DAS. The variety V3 gave the highest fruit yield (1.62 kg/ plant equivalent to 55.25 t/ ha) along with better morphological characters. Considering all studied traits and yield potentiality, BARI hybrid tomato 8 can be regarded as the salt tolerant genotypes.