In order to study peace education and human rights education from the view-point of adult education including education of elderly, the concept of 'militant nonviolence' (E.H. Erikson) is very important.
Psycho-historical aproach by Erikson clarifies the developmental process of the women drafted for military sexual slavery ('comfort women') by Japan who were victimized systematically and deprived of their youth during the 2nd World War. In old age, helped by supporting organizations, they reached to demand the reparation and compensation of Japan by expressing their cruelly hard experience. But their true objects are regaining their own horrors and dignities as human being. It means that they succeeded in acquiring the mentality of ‘miltant nonviolence’ which Erikson shows us in Gandhi's Truth And at the standpoint of supporting organizations younger generation can inherits ‘militant nonviolence’ from the victims of the war in the ‘generational cycle’. This is also meaningful to make clear the Japanese ‘habitus’ (P. Bordieu) which conceals and puts the taboo on aproaching the war crimes and responsibilities of Japan ultimately focusing Tennoh (Japanese emperor) System. This paper is one step to understand the Japanese ‘habitus’ based on the psycho-historical analysis of Korean and Chinese women drafted for military sexual slavery by Japan.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the position and characteristics of Political Education in the activities of The Woman's Suffrage League of Japan (WSL) which was organized to agitate for women's suffrage in 1924.
The most important aim of WSL was to achieve women's suffrage. Therefore they lobbied the Diet. They assumed that Political Education would become more familiar to women and a more important part of their activities after they got the vote. The movement for women's suffrage made progress in this period.
After “Mansyu-Jihen” (1931), however, lobbying for women's suffrage at the Diet began to decline gradually. To cope with this difficult situation, WSL began to cooperate with local governments instead of going directly to the Diet During this process, they realized that connecting Political Education with the everyday lives of women would arouse their political interest.
This Political Education was meant to increase the popularity of the movement to get women's suffrage by focusing on the everyday lives which women were living. It was also meant to convert their individual demands into political opinions, through their everyday lives.
Up to now, the history of the educational practice of African-American adults, especially that before the civil-rights movement, has been underrated in the standard history of adult education in the United States. This paper traces the history of African-American adult education.
This paper's purpose is to focus upon Booker T. Washington's practice of industrial education for African-American youth and adults, and to inquire into its significance. Washington was one of the most influential African-American leaders in the United States from the end of 19th century to the beginning of 20th century. He founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Alabama, one of the states of the Deep South, in 1881. He watched closely the reality of African-Americans living in rural communities in the South, he advocated that they first had to begin to build the ‘bottom’ of life by learning some industrial skills.
There is some criticism of his practice and thought in that they were intended to restrict African-Americans to the laboring class under the rise of capitalism in the South.
However, this paper seeks to appreciate his thought and practice in the context of the situation of African-Americans in the South, and try to locate them in the history of adult education of African-Americans.
Environmental education in today's Japan is mainly focused on children and school. Environmental education for adults is not yet an issue. We tend to have most interest in the radical phases of civil movements for the protection/conservation of the environment.
But we know through the experience of environmental pollution edcation since the 1960s, at the starting point of each citizen's individual involvement in civil movements, they had some chances to learn. And through this learning they become concerned parties. Especialy, learning methods like workshops and particitatory learning work efficiently as spring boards for setting goals and starting actions.
In this paper, I try to clarify the characteristics of participatory learning through the example of the making of local agenda 21 by the citizens' group ‘Eco-city SHIKI’. It will show the process of raising the consciousness of citizens as subjects of self education through making an environmental plan.
Universities of The Third Age are NPO systems of education of those aged 50-74.
The first one was founded in France in 1970's. The French models are managed by the formal Universities in the community. Universities of the Third Age have now spread all over the world. The English model was founded in 1980's as a registered charity. English models are distinguished from French models by their self-help learning programs, and they have developed remarkably since the first was founded. Now, they are noted by the French for their saving and social program systems. In this paper, we try to understand the development of education for older adults in England and the abilities of the third age for education through the analysis of practices of Universities of the Third Age and their self-help learning programs.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze arguments for the Boy's Organizaton (Shonendan) in the Ministry of Education in the early 1920s, to clarify their assertions and characteristics, and place them in the history of social education in Ja pan in the period between the two world wars.
After World War I, in response to social problems, youth problems and social movements, the social education administration was established in the Ministry of Education, and arguments for the Boy's Organization were asserted by Kaju Norisugi and Zyusuke Kataoka in the Social Education Section in the Ministry of Education as ones of social education for children and youths generation.
In this paper, three things are clarified. First, Norisugi and Kataoka studied new educational theories in the U.K. and U.S.A., above all adolescent psychology and the theory of the boy scouts. They wished to organize a boy's organization as th esocialization of school, in order to criticize the schooling and youth organization (Seinendan) andreform them. Second, they thought that the aim of the boy's organization should be based on the concept of children as the center, as far as this concept did not go against nationalistic aims. Third, their assertions were based on the man-power policy strengthening the national power, the thought control (Siso-zendo) policy, the civic education policy and measures to nip juvenile delinquency in he bud.