Traditionally, adult education program planning theories have a certain pattern which includes steps such as needs assesment, developing objectives, formulating instruction, and evaluation. They indicate a linear and step-by-step process in the planning situation, and adult education personnel can apply the manualized procedure in planning program. This characteristics is common with theories of M. Knowles, C Houle and A. Knox.
In 1994, two books were published about adult education program planning theory, the one is “Planning Program for Adult Learners” by R. Caffarella, and the other is ‘Planning Responsibly for Adult Education’by R. Cervero & A. Wilson. Both books take attention to the activities of stakeholders in the program planning process. Caffarella proposed an ‘interactive program’ which includes 11 components and 6 assumptions. Her theory can be accepted easily by novis program planners. Cervero think that program planning is not technical but social activity which includes ethical and political problems. According to him, planning is making the world, and there is a process of “negotiation” of the powers among stakeholders in program planning. He asserts the importance of “democratic planning” in which learners participate in the process.
I believe that Cervero's theory made a big contribution to making new version of planning theory showing planning as reflective practice, and we should integrate both theories which are alternative to traditional program planning theories.
The Government produced a “Civic Education” policy after World War II. It is still debated how closely the policy was related to the prewar Theory on Civic Education. In this paper, I study the formation of the view of Social Education in the early postwar Education Bureau from this point of view.
In stdies of Social Education, postwar Civic Education policy has been criticized for its connections with prewar theories of enlightenment while positive evaluations have tended to lack a viewpoint on the prewar Theory on Civic Education. In this paper, I aim to link a positive evaluation of postwar policy with its roots in prewar policy. I focus on the concept of “Kominkan Koso”, by Sakuo Teranaka, and the ideas of Tai Sekiguchi, who was the chief of the Social Education Bureau.
Why are these important? First, Teranaka's concept, “Kominkan Koso”, is the most concrete plan to make institutions to promote Civec Education in the early postwar Social Education Bureau. Second, Sekiguchi's ideas on Civic Education proposed in the prewar period can be regarded as contributing to Educational Reform following the war.
By analyzing the details of Sekiguchi's ideas on Civic Education and the logic of Teranaka's “Kominkan Koso”, I would like to explain the possible linkage between them and propose a new idea that Sekiguchi's ideas were developed by Teranaka who finally realized these ideas by promoting “Kominkan Koso“.
The purpose of this paper is to consider collaboration between School education and Adult education, focusing on the activity at the Citizens' Public Hall, Izumigaoka, in Osaka. I wish to emphasize the importance of examining the indirect effects of collaboration, such as the relationships between children and adults
In the first part of this paper, I examine the notion of collaboration in contrast to the notion of fusion of school and the community What is significant in this argument is that, as mentioned above, the indirect effects of collaboration are more important than the direct improvements in achievement and parental involvement.
From this viewpoint, in the next part of this paper, I look at two instances in Izumigaoka. One is a “Volunteer-circle” which adjusts the relationships between School education and Adult education, and the other is a “Fureai-salon” which cultivates a mutual trust through collaboration between School education and Adult education. From these cases, I conclude that for collaboration to take hold there needs to be a focal point, both in terms of location and a “key parson”. It is also apparent that it is in the indirect effects of collaboration between School and Adult education that the process as a whole is strengthened.
The aim of this paper is to analyse Fusae Ichikawa's (1893-1981) thinking on political-education, and to clarify the wishes and strategies for women that the Woman's Suffrage League of Japan (WSL) had in the movement for women's suffrage.
Ichikawa played an important role in the WSL from its beginnings to its end. She regarded women's suffrage as a key for women's liberation, and believed that women's suffrage would raise the social status of women and promote equality between women and men. She also believed that women's suffrage would be able to abolish feudal ideas that hindered the adavance of equality between women and men. These beliefs led her to reconfirm the significance of political education for women. The concept of political-ecucation that she used is similar to a concept of civic education.
The movement of political-education of the WSL had the effect of informing people of the significance of women's suffrage and of transmitting of knowledge about politics, economy and society through their lecture meetings and/or their publications. The WSL demanded that civic education should de added to girls'schools curricula. It was added in 1932. Ichikawa emphasised “critical ability” in civic education.
The WSL's political education had some limits. Because of the wide varieties of situation in which political education was to be undertaken, its design became abstract. Also, because the WSL were unable to think about “critical ability” itself criticaly, they could not present a concrete program for political education.
The purpose of this article is to clarify the concept of learners' “independence” in Uehara Senroku's Theory of “Problems Forming Recognition”. This study focuses on the subjective structure of relationships between “intellectuals and the people”. This study clarifies the following five points.
1. Uehara's method of “Problems Forming Recognition” is formulated as “the peoples' (the nation's) recognition method” as opposed to “the specialist's recognition method”.
2. The theory of “integrating intellectuals and the people” proposed by Uehara is a subjective theory for integrating “the specialist's recognition method and “the peoples' (the nation's) recognition method”. This subjective theory calls for intellectuals to become fully involved in the standpoint of the peoples, without abandoning its special social functions.
3. Above-mentioned “the people (the nation)” is constructed as an ideal concept.
4. Uehara's thesis plans the creation of “the people (the nation)”, by practicing “Problems Forming Recognition” continuously, through the cooperation of intellectuals and the people.
5. Uehara stresses that it is necessary for the people to understand the minds, hearts and resentments of dead persons and victims in the community. Uehara proposes that the people can recognize the situation of its “independence” relatively, by repeating this practice. Uehara's thesis designs the peoples' method for verifing degree of arriving at the ideal concept “the people (the nation)”, by above-metioned practice.
This research clarifies the special features of South Korean social education through an analysis of social work and social education in the Korean Penninsular in the 1920's.
Until now there has been little research into the historical development of social education in South Korea. It is therefore necessary to establish the basis of South Korean social education. This paper seeks to clarify how the term social education was introduced into the Korean Penninsular and what the term encapsulated. This paper analyses material on the concepts of social education and social work published in the magazine “Korea” in 1921.
Yamana's “Shakai Kyoiku Ron (Theory of Social Education)” was firstly titled Shakai Kyoiku. It has been analyzed in many ways, but nobody has related the theory with Yamana himself or his context. I try to relate “Shakai Kyoiku Ron” with Yamana himself.
Yamana's paper appeared in two journals named “Kojun-Zasshi” and “Hokkaido Kyoiku-Kai Zasshi”. I found three important points. These are “specialization (Bungyo)”, “association” and “social balance theory”. Especially from third one, “social balance theory”, I found the important theory of “Jitsugyo” including agriculture, business, and industry.
From this we can arrive at a fresh understanding of Yamana's concept of Social Education. The most important point is “Jitsugyo” is a key concept for Yamana, even in the “Shakai Kyoiku Ron”. “Jitsugyo” divides Social education into two parts. The first is called “positive social education” and the other is called “passive social education”. “positive social education” included empowering “Jitsugyo”, in the contrast to the passive one, which in only for controlling morals. This shows that this “Shakai Koiku Ron” was published as a response to the demands for economic growth.
Today, in Japan, it seems that we need a kind of learning which makes us reflect on our values. The main reason is that we have focused on the serious economic depression, which has led to changes in our traditional values.
From educators and facilitators' view points, one of the most important aspects of this learning is that the process will be different for each learner In order to promote transformative learning, we must consider each learner's differences.
Patricia Cranton is studying transformative learning theory, which contains quite valuable suggestions for this. Transformative learning theory can address learning which makes us reflect on our values. In Cranton's study, transformative learning theory based on Mezirow's is analyzed using Jung's psychological type theory. Jung's theory shows the difference in personality between individuals. Using Jung's theory, Cranton tries to understand the differences in transformative learning process among learners.
This paper tries to explain Cranton's study. First, psychological type theory is explained from Cranton's view and the reason why Cranton focused on this theory is explained. Second, the process and content of Cranton's study is discussed.
Recently, we often talk about day nurseries as centers of Community Childrearing Support to solve the problems of raising children, which is connected with concerns over late marriage, the decreasing numbers of children and the increasing numbers of two-income families. But, in the early 1920's in Japan, some day nurseries were already practicing Childrearing Support in their own ways.
The purpose of this paper is to show that mothers received this support through the motherhood education at day nurseries. I use the Aiiku Settlement as an example. This was attached to the Aiiku-kai Society, based on a firm belief that judicious mothers could establish the methods for raising their children
The educational practice of the Aiiku Settlement consisted of two parts. One is a mothers' circle at the settlement, and the other was lecture for mothers and young females in the community. These two educations harmoniously cultivated the mothers' concerns for the growth of their children and improved their parenting abilities. The Aiiku-kai Society has provided a principle for motherhood education in Japan.
In the rapidly changing world of adult education in Japan, we need to return to the fundamentals, and then, we need to consider detailed studies about adult educational reform during the early postwar period.
The Citizen's Public Hall was institued in the early postwar period as a link in the chain of adult educational reform and symbolizes the newness of adult education after the war.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the process of the formation and institutionalization of Citizen's Public Halls from 1946 to 1952, focussing on the Citizen's Public Hall of Sakurai Village, Aichi Prefecture.
This paper consists of the following. : (a) A preface, describing the purpose and method of this study, (b) a description of the adult education movement's administration in the early postwar period in Aichi Prefecture―focussing on the formation of Citizen's Public Halls, (c) an analysis of the formation, management and activities of the Citizen's Public Hall in Sakurai Village, Aichi Prefecture in the early postwar period, (d) an evaluation of the contribution of the Citizen's Public Hall of Sakurai Village, Aichi Prefecture to other Citizen's Public Halls in Aichi Prefecture in the postwar period, and (e) a conclusion.
The conclusion includes the following points : (a) Citizen's Public Hall in the early period in Aichi Prefecture functioned as locations of self-government activities, technical education and youth education. (b) The Citizen's Public Hall of Sakurai Village, Aichi Prefecture was a model for other Citizen's Public Halls in Aichi Prefecture and led other Citizen's Public Halls in Aichi Prefecture, especially, in the early postwar period.
Shigejiro Ogawa (1863-1925) is one of the representative theorists on reformatory education.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the formation and development of Shigejiro Ogawa's reformatory educational theory.
In this, I divide this formation and development into three periods.
The first term is the period he worked on prison administration (1886-1897). He criticized punishment, and insisted on the importance of education. Above all, he thought morals and rules important. It was the basis of his reformatory educational theory.
The second term is the period he was interested in reformatory education by going abroad to study (1897-1908). He regarded reformatory education as one criminal policy, and thought that the purpose of reformatory education is to reduce crime and protect society.
The third term is his period of social works, when he completed the reformatory educational theory (1908-1925). By accepting Ellen Key's idea of children's rights in Europe, he saw children as holders of rights. He criticized the view of reformatory education as one of the criminal policies, and insisted that it must protect the rights and development of children.
Shigejiro Ogawa was one of the pioneers working on the problem of juvenile delinquents from the view-point of protecting children's rights.
Spontaneous educational attempts by intellectuals and people soon after WW II were closely tied to intellectuals' regret for their helplessness against the war and with their intention to cooperate in the reconstruction of Japan Previous research has not paid attention to the intentions and activities of intellectuals. This paper examines the historical meaning and influence of such an intellectual movement through a case study of the staff members of the magazine Sekai-Bunka.
Sekai-Bunka, published by scholars in fields from the humanities to natural sciences in the Kyoto area from 1935 to 1937, presented the world tendency of anti-fascism. Although most of the staff members were prosecuted for violating the Maintenance of the Public Order and kept from the active stage during the war, they took active and important parts in social and/or educational reform and journalism after WW II.
The analysis of Sekai-Bunka and of their memoirs demonstrates their acceptance of Marxism in 1930s, their cooperation and social concern appearing in the journal, and their irrational experiences in prison and isolation in the war, which led them to social activities after the war. The intellectual movement shows how we can cooperate and use our knowledge for the public good.
This article examines and analyzes the possibility of regional community under decentralization, by focusing on the cultural aspects of Okinawa society. Okinawa has exceptional circumstances for the following reasons. First, Okinawan society has been created in each small scale regional community, called “Shima”, based on it's traditional history culture and sensitivity, cooperation, collaboration and solidarity. Second, the history and culture of each community have “the universality of time”, it is only accepted in the local area, not worldwide. Third, regional communities have developed the invested the self-governing has the necessary individual consciousness to lay the groundwork for social participation, connecting government to the inhabitants, so that local government may be effective.
For the reasons stated above, Okinawan regional communities that have the individuality, “the universality of time” and one self-governing, have defended their lives against serious problems, including military affairs, community development and the peace movement. The small scale regional community should allow for move individuality and variety than has been the case in Japan outside Okinawa. Consequently, it is necessary to rebuild the base of regional community, in order to conquer the modern dehumanized society. Therefore this example of regional community of Okinawa holds important lessons for the decentralization of Japan today.