The purpose of this study is to clarify the origin of social education in Korea.
As I clarify the concept and characteristics of social education through an examination of the journals of various Hakhoe (Academic Associations) in the late Korean Empire (1905-1910), I will refute the common view that social education was introduced by Japan during the Japanese colonization (1910-1945). The Hakhoe journals from the late Korean intellectuals and was regarded with great importance for the purpose of mass-education and spiritual education for national salvation. Though, at the time the social education was influenced by the Japanese, because Japan was already interfering in Korean Empire politics, the fact, that “Social Education” was actively used by nongovernmental organizations in comparison with the use of “Tsuzoku-kyoiku (popular education)” by the Government, shows that Korean social education was recognized and accepted by Korean intellectuals in the late Korean Empire.
The purpose of this paper is to consider the learning systems which support women re-entering higher education or employment after living as housewives. I focused on the Fresh Horizons program in London, England, which was introduced by Enid Hutchinson.
The Fresh Horizons program has two aims. One is to help adult learners, including women, to access into higher education. Another is to support women to make a fresh start after taking care of children. Today, however, the second aim is disappearing because of the educational policy of the British Government. But I wish to emphasize the importance of the second aim for women.
First, I examine the relationship between Enid Hutchinson and Fresh Horizons. She had broad experience as a housewife, mother and as an adult educator. The Fresh Horizons program was the fruition of her experience and educational practices.
Second, the Fresh Horizons program is analyzed and it is pointed out that this program supports women in making a fresh start. Two characteristics of the program are pointed out. First, it lays stress the process of learning. Secondly, it raises women's consciousness for liberation.
Finally, I conclude that the importance of this learning system lies in making the best of women's experiences and developing their self-esteem. It is also important that tutors who give education advice and supports to women's exist.
This paper analyses the historical development of British museum education. Today, the majority of museums provide educational services aimed at wide audiences. However, this was not the case when museums were first established as “public” institutions in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Museums have since evolved due to changes in the social and political climate, which continues today.
Like Britain, Japan has strong government support for the promotion of museum education. This is in response to the high demand from a lifelong-learning society and schools. This is achieved by providing a variety of learning opportunities based on unique collections of artefacts.
This paper focuses on the British Museum from its establishment in 1759 to the present day. Its long history as an ivory tower and how it has gradually assumed its role as an educational institution is critically examined. The aim of this paper is to provide practical suggestions for the improvement of Japanese museums. The following points are raised for consideration by Japanese museums : how the stance of museums towards education has changed ; what kinds of external supports have enforced the educational role of museums ; and finally, the partnership between museums and other educational institutions for training museum educators. The HSBC Money Gallery and the eyeOpeners (Volunteer Gallery Guide) project are focused on as good examples of present educational activities.
In modern China the concepts of Social Education and Popular Education are considered to have been by Japan. In this study, I analyze a previously unexamined concept of Social Education, focusing on the activities of The Association of Popular Education in China, established in 1912, and on the idea of Popular Education of Wu Da, who played a role in the association.
Wu Da's conception of “Popular Education” was based on the then current demands for the construction of a democratic one-country-one-nation China. It consisted of 4 key ideas : the national idea, life design for survival, a sense of morality and a sense of hygiene. In terms of concrete method, he made much of the enlightening lecture aimed at spreading the national culture “anytime, anywhere, anyone”.
In Wu Da's idea of Social Education, the administration was to take the lead in establishing policy and institutions, although semi-governmental and private organizations would also play a part. Furthermore, he pointed out that the phrase “Social Education” was an administrative term with much less weight than “school education”.
Therefore he did not use the term Social Education, favoring Popular Education instead. He insisted that the development of Popular Education would include and magnify Social Education.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify ideas of the Sea Scouts movement in prewar Japan, especially those of Michita Hara, who was a retired naval officer. The period under discussion in this article is between 1923 and 1938. The first Sea Scouts troop was set up at Kobe in 1923, and 5 other troops were established in the following year. Accordingly, in 1925 the Sea Scouts Department was founded in the Federation of Boy Scouts in Japan. This department held its own leader training courses and training camps for scouts annually. Michita Hara, as the director of the Department, arranged almost everything concerned with these activities. In spite of his naval background, he didn't consider Sea Scouts activities as military training during this period. Besides, using scouting educational methods, the patrol and badge systems, he thought about what sorts of activities were essentially needed for boys' growth, and ultimately for world peace. However, with a shortage of a capable people and useful equipment, the department and individual troops needed naval support on some occasions. In those cases, the naval officers accepted their offers and did only what they were asked. This article concludes that Sea Scouts movement shouldn't be regarded totally from the beginning to its collapse in 1945. After 1938 the whole organization fell under the control of the Navy, but before that year the situation was completely different.
In the past decade many universities and colleges have experienced a tremendous growth in attendance of mature students. This type of non-traditional student will constitute an important portion of the total student enrollment in the near future.
This paper aims to compare the characteristics and learning styles of mature students with traditional students. The data for this study is supplied by non-traditional graduate students (90), traditional graduate students (103), and traditional undergraduate students (266).
As the result of this study, it is shown that mature students entered graduate courses with strong motivation and to achieve various goals: for career development to gain higher qualifications, and to build their own knowledge and experience. But, in doctoral courses, learning goals are apt to converge at latter two.
Non-traditional students want to exercise self-direction in planning, selecting contents and strategies, and deciding the pace of their studies. This inclination is more obious than with traditional students.
Mature students also prefer participatory activities and individualized learning to lecture and group work. The kind of teachers they seek are “Enablers” and “Facilitators”. And they like to develop learning activities mutually with their teachers.
Analyzing non-traditional students by Self-directed Learning Readiness Scale, their score is higher than that of traditional students. They have aggressive self-concepts and confidence in their study skills, e.g. reading, writing, theoretical thinking, critical thinking and presentation skills.
After taking all of the above into consideration, non-traditional students have remarkable features, as supported by Andragogy, as self-directed learners.
The theme of this paper is to clarify the actual state of emigration education, in reference to the social educational activities for emigrants in the 1920s, before the time of large change on emigration education. At the same time, I try to pay attention to how emigration education was carried out based on the background of emigration educational thought.
This paper consists of the following point. First, I divided the pre-war period into 4 sub-periods regarding the emigration education in Okinawa before World war II, according to the emigration policy to Brazil. The first period, from 1901 to 1920, the second period, 1920 to 1926, the third period, 1926 to 1936, and the latest period, 1936 to 1945. This period division helps to clarify the relationship between emigration education and the emigration policy. Second, the Okinawa Overseas Society (Okinawa-ken Kaigai Kyou-kai) played an important part in the emigration education of the 1920s. This Society contributed to development of the emigration education, utilizing the activities of young men's groups, the vocational supplementary schools (Gitsugyo-hosyu Gakko), lecture meetings and film meetings in the community. Third, the emigration education theory of the 1920s hardly included a colonial thought. According to this theory, emigration from Okinawa to the foreign countries was considered as “an extension of the right to live”. And also that theory included the idea of living-together with different races overseas.
Today, one of the fundamental problems of studies on adult education in USA is the ambiguity of the term of “adult education”. From 1920s, this term was used for all educational activities, that adults participate in. However, since this term, “adult education”, could be taken in abroad sense, there is no clear definition of the concept, therefore, it is difficult to analyse. This is the cause of confusion in the meaning of the concept of “adult education”, today.
The use of the term, “adult education” was spread by the American Association for Adult Education (AAAE). In historical studies of American adult education, it has been concluded that the Association has not provided any definition because they do not have it in their Articles. However, a memorandum of AAAE states the fact that they had many preliminary conferences on adult education and discussions of the concept.
This paper aims to clarify the formation and development process of concept of “adult education”, focusing on the discussion in preliminary conferences. The following are the main findings :
(1) Activities related to “adult education” by AAAE attempted to expand educational opportunities for “middle class”.
(2) “Adult education” for the “middle class” was to nurture values and citizenship to stabilize the American community after W. W. I.
(3) Liberal education was the core of the “adult education”, which included not only the liberal arts, but also intelligences such as critical thinking and debating skills. This is called “citizenship”.
(4) The Carnegie foundation has shifted their concept of “adult education” based on the discussion of preliminary conferences. The foundation took “adult education” as activities at libraries, aiming at improvement of reading ability amoung young people. After shifting their concept, “adult education” activities were recognized as national educational policy, and they were provided for all American citizens.
In an aging society, we have to discuss how to promote social relationship between generations for intergenerational collaboration. In the U.S.A., intergenerational programs started in the 60's to promote intergenerational exchange between vulnerable youth and olderadults. And human service types programs serving youth and older adults with difficulties, have been developed since the 80's.
In this paper I am going to examine the meaning of those programs by inquiring into developmental theories as the bases for intergenerational programs and into mutual interactions between the age groups, and discuss how intergenerational programs can contribute to “civic education.”
In the history of Social Education, Kyouson is known as a founder of Jiyūdaigaku (Free University, 1921-1930). Jiyūdaigaku was a noted nongovernmental Social Education movement, which has been analyzed in many ways. But Kyouson's Social Education Theory has not been analyzed in full. Especially, there are few preceeding studies which have related his theory with his way of thinking. The purpose of this paper is to show how his theory is related with his thought and the new view of education he tried to present.
Firstly, I discuss his fundamental view of the world was. Kyouson thought that the subject and the object mutually symbolize each other. Secondly, I discuss how this is reflected in his Social Reconstruction Theory. This must be seen in relationship to his Culturalism (Bunkashugi), Personalisrn (Jinkakushugi), Idealism (Riōshugi), and pluralistic conception of the Society. He believed that individuals should have the necessary character to make sound judgements. Thirdly, Kyouson's Social Education Theory, in which his new view of education was presented, is considered. The bedrock of his theory was proletarian culture. he advocated consistently the posibility of diversity in cognition and presented ideas for practical debate based on a semantic, phenomenological analysis of education.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the variety and transformation of community popular education before the institutionalization of social education in the early 1920s in Japan, focussing on Tokyo Prefecture in the 1880s-1910s.
The spread and development of activities of popular education in local areas after the 1880s formed the basis of the establishment of social education administration in modern Japan, although the state played the most important role in this process. Positive efforts were made to promote popular education in each local area, based on the policy of the state.
Social education in prewar Japan tends to be stereotyped as a means through which the state controlled people. A variety of activities were, however, independently carried out according to the special needs of each particular region, and these forms of education also evolved in aspect, especially during the period 1880-1920.
In the 1880s-1990s, Tokyo was made up of a variety of regions, such as the great city itself, a continuation of the old Edo capital, the farming regions next to the city, the mountain villages far from the city, and the islands off the mainland. This variety engendered a diverse approach to popular education in each local area. We can, therefore, examine the variety and transformation of community popular education through a case study of Tokyo.
The purpose of health education is to clarify health problems and to raise conscious and competence to fight against them.
Concretely, it attempts promote such competence for citizens or client by giving them a hand in the planning of their health promotion programs on an equality with doctors and nurses.
This paper clarifies the process of citizens' empowerment through health education, viewing the case of activities of health committees called “Hokeniin” in Shonai medical cooperative.
In this medical cooperative, they have a stratified system of learning opportunities based on groups called “Han”, and “Hokeniin” which mediate between citizens and doctors gain such competence and take part in their health promotion independently.