This paper analyses the qualifications/training system of animateurs in France, focusing on the concept of ‘travailleur social’ that is characteristic of animateurs today.
The expansion of these qualifications has proceeded in response to various social needs as the position of ‘travailleur social’ has become established. And so, the employment of animateurs has rapidly increased. However, there have been criticisms that the qualifications do not necessarily ensure the quality of animateurs. Also, the qualifications have contributed to both the segmentation of the labor and restrictions in its application. The position of ‘travailleur social’ animateur is the new labor which is requested in various tiers in the society, however, their professionalism is still ambiguous and so they remain in relatively low ranking positions.
On the other hand. the activities of ‘travailleur social’ are expanding in conjunction with local communities according to local needs. Attention should be paid to these local activities to develop both training organizations (associations) and the practice of animateurs. It is possible that local action will contribute to the improvement of the quality of the labor and activities of animateurs. It is even possibile that a dynamic movement that responds to the needs of local community with the collaboration of many other ‘travailleurs sociaux’ and volunteers can be created.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the meaning of ‘reflection’ in exploring the professional development of adult educators. The word ‘reflection’ has recently become emphasized as a new critical concept and method for the professional development of adult educators and has also come to the attention of researchers and practitioners in the Japan Society for the Study of Adult Education.
First, the meaning of reflection for developing the practical abilities of adult educators is considered. Here two concepts, ‘reflective practitioner’ and ‘espoused theory of practice and theory-in-use’ are analyzed. Second, two concepts, namely ‘reflection-on-action’ and ‘reflection-in-action’ are analyzed, in order to explore what and how adult educators reflect and how their own reflections relate to their professional development. Last, after summarizing these discussions, some research and practical tasks are proposed.
In this study, theoretical methods are used, but some case studies are introduced and analyzed, in order to make clear the meaning of ‘theory of practice’.
This study deals with community development of art activities.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the relations between the center and the district in the process of community development, and to examine the role of community development learning in the process. This study adopts “the theory of Integrative Organs” to analyze the relation between the center and the district to attain these purposes. According to “the theory of Integration Organs”, local districts lose their identity as local colture is integrated with city culture, under the process of urbanization.
As a result of the analysis, four steps in community development were identified, with the above theory representing the second step. After the second step, the community development learning begun by some of the local inhabitants spread throughout the whole community, which then spread to the city. This ‘process oriented community development’ could give local districts autonomy in social learning.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of human capital through worker education under the Mine Safety movement. The Mine Safety movement was developed by the Ministry of Home Affairs developed following a post World War I panic and revision of the Factory Law following the adoption of the International Labor Treaty for the purpose of promoting labor cooperation. One of its purposes was to promote life improvement, and the Coal Mine Housewives' Association played an important part in this. In other words, it intervened in the worker's private territory, using the slogan, “safety comes from the family”.
The Safety movement served capital by improving the quality of labor capital through worker education and improved labor relations and served the workers by helping to improve their living conditions.
Kokichi Morimoto was a pioneer of study on consumption economics in Japan, and an educator who tried to actualize his ideals of “cultured life” by the practice of education for adults and girls. In this paper, I refer to some characteristics of his discourses and educational projects in the Taisho and early Showa era, and examine how these characteristics were related to his idea of the “middle class” as torchbearers of the social reform. In addition to this, I examine how his thought and practice corresponded to the habitus of new middle class in this period.
Morimoto insisted that the “middle class” would necessarily play a leading role in social reforms centered on improvement of daily life. Based on the premise of a rational “middle class” as leaders in the process of social evolution, he appealed to the new middle class to act to improve their lives, and argued that their actual economic status was too low. Moreover, Morimoto tried to bring out the positivity of the “middle class” through his projects of adult education. The sections for readers' opinions, questions in the journals of his organization for adult education assumed that the readers were capable of positively controlling and improving their own lives. And he presented models for ideal living like the “Bunka-Apartment,” which excelled the actual living standards of the new middle class in this period. It was based on his expectations of the new middle class as active subjects in the pursuit of the aloft ideals of their lives.
This paper is a study of the commissioning of non-profit organizations (NPOs) to manage social education facilities It is this paper's purpose to clarify the suitability of NPOs for social education and to highlight the administrative tasks in commissioning them. I examine these subjects based on 2 cases of studies.
In section 1, I consider the meaning of commissioning NPOs. And I point out that commissioning NPOs must be done as a means to improve the service offered by the institution.
In section 2, I outline the 2 case studies.
In section 3, I consider the suitability of NPOs. Based on the cases, the significant features of NPOs managing social education facilities are found in their undertakings, their staff, their networks of human relationships etc. Putting these matters together, I conclude that the specialty of NPOs is not in the individual expertise but in their organization.
In section 4, I analyze some problems that I find in the cases, and consider some parts that the administration must take in commissioning NPOs to manage social education facilities. It is especially, important to clarify administrative responsibility. Further, there are many problems concerning budgetary cutbacks.
Finally, I mention some topics for future research in section 5.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify that care, as a frame of reference, is necessary to the lifelong learning framework. I focus on the concept of care used by Carol Gilligan, a psychologist, and Erik H. Erikson.
The lifelong learning framework makes it possible to discuss education and learning over the whole of the life-span and of society. Lifelong learning has been expected to contribute both to personal development and economic growth. Today, in addition, social cohesion has become one of the fundamental objectives, by learning to live together with different people. In the framework, however, the self is defined through separation, and development through independence. So, the relationship with others is an inactive one, defined by concepts such as respect and non-interference.
Gilligan calls such a framework an ‘ethic of justice’ and shows another, an ‘ethic of care’. In this, the self is delinated through the communication, and responsibility plays an important part. Care is active concern and involvement, brought out by another one's weakness As Erikson argues, care supports generativity, a sense of productivity and maintenance of the world. The concept of care helps the lifelong learning framework discuss other aspects of life, as vital involvement, mutuality, generation-cycle and so on.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the origin and structure of problem-posing ESL (English as a Second Language) in the U.S.A.. I focus on this because of my recognition of the need for critical literacy in the learning of Japanese as a second language. For that purpose I review relevant studies of language acquisition, papers on refugees and immigrants and treatises of proponents of problem-posing ESL who criticize communicative and survival ESL.
First, I focus on the historical, social and economic background of adult ESL. I examine the origins of adult ESL under the influence of language rights in connection with the civil rights movement, the harmful influence on national finances of the poverty of refugees and immigrants, ESL training supported by labor unions since 1900 and the history of studies of second language acquisition.
Second, I consider the beginning of the problem-posing approach which Nina Wallerstein practiced in a Spanish-speaking neighborhood of San Jose, CA. with the teaching materials and teachers' guidebook on problem-posing ESL.
Third, I examine the analysis of survival ESL in which Auerbach and Burgess clarify the hidden curriculum of new genre in ESL (1980's). They criticized these texts as not reflecting the immigrants' reality. For example, their anxieties, cultural backgrounds and difficult situations in the new country Furthermore, the texts placed students in subservient social roles and reinforced social hierarchies.
Finally, I clarify the concept and characteristics of problem-posing ESL. The practice of Wallerstein was based upon Brazilian educator Paulo Freire's problem-posing approach. The goal of the problem-posing approach is critical thinking and action starting from perceiving the social, historical and cultural causes of the problems in one's life. Critical thinking goes on beyond perception toward the actions and decisions refugees and immigrants can make to gain control over their lives. A problem-posing methodology has three steps: listening: investigating the issues of the community, dialogue: cordifying issues into discussion code for critical thinking, action: strategizing the changes students envisage.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the significance of adult education in Lyceum Movement, focusing on the diffusion of scientific knowledge. As some historical studies on adult education in US have pointed out, the diffusion of scientific knowledge in Lyceum Movement contributed to the provision of educational opportunities for adults, especially mechanics and merchants. However, the question is what kind of educational significance was expected through the diffusion of scientific knowledge for adults who lived in communities. To answer this question, this paper attempts to explore the kinds of science that were provided for adults, and to clarify what aims of the adult education were achieved through the diffusion of scientific knowledge in Lyceum Movement.
Firstly, this paper suggests that 8 branches of science were provided in Family Lyceum ed. by Josiah Holbrook.
Secondly, through the columns written by Holbroop and letters from readers, this paper clarifies that : (1) Holbrook considered scientific knowledge as ‘self-knowledge’; (2) he aimed to provide ‘self-knowledge’ so that adults could improve themselves; (3) Family Lyceum's readers believed that the diffusion of scientific knowledge encouraged adults to promote education in the family and community.
Finally, this paper concludes that the diffusion of scientific knowledge in Lyceum Movement played important role to improve adults who could educate their children and youth in communities.