The purpose of this paper is to consider how we guarantee the right to education in temporary shelters attached to child welfare centers. There, following children live together, juvenile delinquents, battered children, children whose parent(s) are in the hospital, disappeared, or arrested, and so forth. They are not allowed to go out from the shelter, and they cannot go to school. Therefore, they study in the shelter instructed by staffs there. Most of the staffs, however, do not have teacher's license. In the temporary shelter attached to Osaka Municipal Central Child Welfare Center, for example, children study in the morning using prints staffs prepared. They mainly study Japanese and mathematics.
To guarantee the right to education in the temporary shelter, a staff with specialty as a teacher and instruction by a small number of staffs should be arranged. The possible methods are as follows. First, inviting one or some (former) teachers to the shelter whose task is to plan children's study and the teachers and the staffs together teach them. Second, if there are a small number of children, it must be effective to make a branch school in the shelter.
We need further study how to guarantee the right to education in temporary shelters and reformatories from the point of view of pedagogy.
At urban regions in China, there are about seven millions children whose parents called Nongmingong come from rural regions and are hard to get educational attainment because they and their parents are difficult to get registers of the urban districts. First, this paper composes the model of educational attainment from preceding studies and examines the relationship between family conditions, their educational aspirations and conditions of learning. In the result of this survey, parental encouragement and child educational aspiration are related. Beside this, there is not high but correlation of the educational aspiration and one index of learning conditions. But the other side, the educational aspiration didn't have correlations with another two index of learning conditions. Finding that the children who is a member of a large size of family has a tendency to get behind in school year, and finding that the children whose families don't have many friend with the city of citizen tend to get behind in leaning at home.
So as a result, beside the subjective factors, promoting the well fare work and personal networks in cities of China are important things for the children of the Nongmingong to get better conditions of their learning.
In South Korea, Ministry of Education & Human Resources Development has enforced “Lifelong Learning City Policy” that aims to induct local governments in lifelong education since 2001. The policy reflects one of the new movements that have come out from the 1990's. The purpose of this paper is to examine the development and problems of community lifelong edecation focusing on Bucheon city which was choosen as a lifelong learning city in 2002.
This paper will first review the general situation of community lifelong education and “Lifelong Leaning City Policy”. Secondly, it will analyse how a local government accepted a demand from the citizens and cooperated with them, and outline the development of the “Lifelong Learning City Policy” in Bucheon. Thirdly, based on the former examination, it will suggest the concerns of community lifelong education in Korea. Finally, the paper will conclude that community lifelong education possesses the possibility to create a new community.
The aim of this study is to consider an agent's role and activity in the agricultural extension work of the United States through the practice of New York State College of Agriculture at Cornell University, especially paying attention to the 1910's when the Cooperative Extension Service was established.
The agricultural extension work started for the purpose of the spread of the scientific agricultural knowledge studied at the college of agricultural at the end of the 19th century, and in the 1910's, accomplished the needs oriented work.
The agent who positioned into the enforcement system of a new agricultural extension work was required to promote the study under the collaboration-relation between a University and a farmer.
In particular, first, they developed a farmer's unconscious needs by supporting creation of the farmer-directed program. Second, they executed a work plan with the farmers and the college specialists. Third, they carried the result of the farm practice into the college and contributed to building new knowledge.
This paper intends to examine the development of the international network of Participatory Action Research in the field of adult education promoted by ICAE after the 1970's. In particular, it is argued that the methodology of social education study searched by Seiichi Miyahara had a close relationship with this international movement.
Participatory Action Research means the unified process of the research and the practice of adult learning organized in a collaborative way by the researchers as well as the participants who are interested in the problem-solving process of the community.
Being influenced by ‛the linguistic and cognitive turn' in social theories in 1960's and 70's, Participatory Action Research has pursuit to raise critical consciousness of the people. This methodological idea was aslo influenced by Paulo Freire's philosophy of the ‛Pedagogy of the Oppressed'.
Seiichi Miyahara had continuously organized action researches from 1950's to 70's. His works originally rooted in Japan, and now give us many important suggestions. My conclusion is that in the international context. these works were very advanced.
In the United States, there has been the tradition of nonformal adult education, while the public adult education policies put emphasis on man-power development based on the human capital theory.
Myles Horton, the founder and the leader of the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee, was called “the Giant of adult education movement in the United States” and had always been active in pursuit of the empowerment of the people and the realization of democracy. His philosophy of human liberation has much to do with Lindeman's idea of “social education”. Once Horton said of Lindeman, “I saw adult education, through Lindeman, as a dealing with some of the problems (working with poor southerners)”*.
This paper attempts to assess the transition of Lindeman's idea of adult education and confirm the relation between his idea of “social education” and Horton's philosophy. Also, it aims to clarify the school of adult education for social change, that is, Dewey, Lindeman, Horton, Mezirow and Freire and seek its possibility today.
* Peter Jarvis ed., Twentieth Century Thinkers in Adult Education, London, Croom Helm, 1987, p.247.
In the field of educational gerontology, understanding the eider's attitudes toward aging is one important task as a basis of educational intervention for this age group. In this paper, the author compared attitudes toward aging between the Canadian elderly and Japanese elderly with the same questionnaires.
Overall, attitudes toward aging were positive/neutral in both respondents, but Canadian's attitudes toward aging were more positive orienred.
With the help of Hayashi's Quantitative Method III, two clusters of attitudes, namely positive/neutral and negative were detected. The elderly of high socio economic status were more likely to have negative attitudes toward aging. But we suggest that positive attitudes toward aging will be cultivated through educational intervention for the elderly, as is evidenced by the participants of the Canadian Senior's Center.
The purpose of this study is to explain the process of establishment and activities of Hanni-Woman Library, and investigate the meaning of women's reading activities in the 1960's.
By analyzing the miscellany of Hanni-Woman Library, it is demonstrated that the women at that time were alienated from reading activities or other cultural activities because of pressure from their family, especially from their mother-in-law.
Hanni-Woman Library gave them the opportunity to read.
Although the number of library members were reduced because of women's participation in public and prevalence of television, there were some women who continued their reading activities.
Through activities of the Hanni-Woman Library, women became to form a habit of reading and to find the importance of learning together.
For them, reading activities were an essential source of their cultivation in order to decide things for themselves and act on their own judgments and present their thoughts and ideas.