The purpose of this paper is to research youth occupation aid (Jugendberufshilfe) for disadvantaged young people and the role of social youth workers (Sozialpädagoge) in Dresden, one of the cities suffering poor economic conditions in East Germany.
This paper focuses on the following points:
1. The youth occupation aid program is based on the clear background of the law, especially the Children and Youth Aid Law (Kinder-und Jugendhilfegesetz) and the Employment Promotion Law (Arbeitsförderungsgesetz).
2. Based on the Children and Youth Aid Law, the disadvantaged consists of two categories; the individually impaired and the socially disadvantaged. The factors which make their courses of life more difficult are the shortage of jobs and training places and the increasingly higher level of school certificate needed for employment.
3. The youth occupation aid program has the role of helping the youth to “integrate themselves” and to “be independent” vocationally and socially. It also has a great purpose to “promote the development of personality and social abilities”. To put it concretely, it is concerned with such social skills as keeping a promise and being punctual, the improvement of human relations, the preparation of entry sheets, job interview practice and the acquisition of knowledge and skills for information gathering.
4. The profession of social youth workers has a very great role in the youth occupation aid program. To sum up, it has a promoting role for “independence” and “personal development” of the youth by “integration” and “participation” into the labor system. Concerning its methodologies I can point out the orientation to the world of life (Lebenswelt) of the youth, receptive care and support of the youth, the creation of open spaces for them, and accompanying and case management.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory of civic education from the point of adult education. The theory of civic education was constructed in order to organize citizens in the 1920s. Generally, the theory has been regarded as a form of national control. However, there were various aspects to the theory. We should not miss the idea of fostering people's political awareness in the theory.
Although, in pedagogy, we have mainly discussed the theory in relation to the history of the subject “citizenship” in school education, the theory actually played an important role in adult education, such as social education, reforming the political system, and enlightening the electorate.
I examine the theory of civic education referring to Toshio Ogawa's outline. Ogawa divided the theory of civic education into two types following the theory of national education by Senroku Uehara; political ideas and pedagogical ideas. This paper focuses on political ideas which have rarely been discussed in past studies, and examines the details of the theory of Masamichi Rouyama, who took account of political ideas. Rouyama was famous for contributing to the development of political science and public administration.
I clarify that Rouyama presented a theory of civic education based on a theoretical search for policy and education from the prewar time that led to the development of the theory of political education and educational autonomy in the postwar time.
The purpose of this study is to present a modern interpretation of sub-section 1.3 of Section 3 of the Museum Law by analyzing its formation process. Sub-section 1.3 of Section 3 provides that museums should advise and counsel citizens on using resources and objects, and offer spaces such as laboratories, workshops and libraies. The Section is notable in terms of both the theory and practice of museums oriented to the function for facilitating citizen's study.
The Museum Law was established 1951 and underwent seven drafts. The concept included in sub-section 1.3 of Section 3 can be found in all drafts. However, the number of items concerning the concept of citizen's study were decreased, the subjects using museums were abstracted and the concerns supported by museums were simplified in the drafting process. Furthermore the provisions for the system of museum and the role of professional, “Gakugei-in”, made it almost impossible for museums to facilitate citizen's study. The function of museums in facilitating citizen's study is obvious in the earlier drafts, especially the first one, “the Museum, Zoo and Botanical Garden Law”. The concept of the first draft is rooted in Gentaro Tanahashi's theory of Home Museum (Heimatmuseum), as it had been written by him.
Based on the formation process and the Tanahashi's theory, the concept of sub-section 1.3 of Section 3 can be interpreted as being that museums should function to facilitate citizen's study on subjects of community and their own lives while exploring and using resources and objects.
The purpose of this article is to clarify the valuing method of UEHARA Senroku's Theory of Subject-formation. This study clarifies the following six points.
1. Relativating “modernity” in UEHARA's theory is a driving power for his thoughts and behavior. Valuing the process of self-formation is a directing handle for his thoughts and behavior.
2. The valuing method of his theory has changed. The process of these changes should be divided into two terms. The characteristic of valuing method in the first term is “abstract affirmative” and in the latter term it is “concrete negative.”
3. The above mentioned method in the first term was made by the logic that set ideal values counter to “modernity”.
4. In the latter term, UEHARA attached importance to the phases that each learner made concrete negative values in the context that they prevent the second coming of the victims of modern system, such as the war, medical mistakes, and public pollution and so on.
5. “Concrete negative valuing” respects the existence of individuality. This is oriented toward relativating “modernity”.
6. Therefore this valuing method is effective for checking the centripetal forces that go into specific groups, which Is seen in the concept of “education for forming Japanese peoples”. Further this method is effective for checking the rationality of knowledge systems which justify the above mentioned centripetal forces.
This paper aims to clarify the inherent problems of the virtual universities in the United States of America, following a decade during which they have developed their curricula and teaching staff.
The results of the study are as follows.
(1) Two kinds of providers have established virtual univerities: for-profit universities and traditional universities.
(2) Since virtual universities have promptly met more consumers' needs than traditional programs, their curricula tend to be demand-driven. Traditional universities have withdrawn from providing virtual education whereas for-profit universities have suceeded in managing their challenging environment. The reason is related to the degree to which they are consumer centered.
(3) In the virtual universities, there are various staff, including teachers who have no or little acadenic experience. As a result, the quality of their education is questionable.
In view of the above, we can regard that the virtual universities have faced the opposition from two educatinal approaches. One is the necessity of university education centered approach, the other is demand-centered adult education.
The purpose of this study is to describe and explain the process of writing by women/girls in textile factories before the war in Japan.
Most of women/girls workers in textile factories were illiterate in the Meiji era. By the middle of Taisho era, a lot of them could write letters and read magazines, but they were watched by overseers, so they were not able to write and read freely. In the 1920's, from the end of the Taisho era to the beginning of the Showa era, some workers took part in labor unions and strikes. Through these new experiences, they learned that they could express their demands and take action to change their situations.
At the end of the 1920's, proletarian magazines and labor union magazines asked women workers to write Seikatsu-Kiroku essays. Seikatsu-Kiroku essays are realistic records of everyday life. Women in textile factories started writing down their experiences and everyday lives, and contributed to magazines. Readers made groups to circulate magazines among them, to discuss various things, to write to each other. But by the middle of the 1930's, it was difficult to make groups and hold free discussions. In some labor unions, a lot of meetings were held by women to study, for recreational activities, and to learn achvities such as cooking and knitting. Through their meetings and activities, the women came to know each other and become good friends. It is not clear that they wrote, read and discussed their writings in these groups or unions.
In former studies, the Movement for the Improvement of living before WWII was described as projects aimed at “individuals,” espeially people of the new middle class in cities, who spontaneously tried to improve their domestic lives. However, Seikatsu-Kaizen-Domeikai (The League for the Improvement of Living, renamed Seikatsu-Kaizen-Chuokai (The Central Association for the Improvement of living) in 1933) which spearheaded this movemet, continued its activities until 1943. In order to grasp a total image of the movement for the improvement of living, it is necessary to describe the activities of this corporation in the early Showa era.
In the 1920s, the activities of Domeikai centered on providing individual citizens with concrete and detailed “knowledge” about daily life through journals, pamphlets, exhibitions, and so on. These activities aimed mainly at the new middle class in cities. This character of the movement changed in the mid 1930s. Domeikai/Chuokai tried to expand its movement, and stressed the complete “execution” of the improvement of living in each area in Japan. As a result, this corporation approached the movement in rural areas, where it was easier to mobilize inhabitants than in cities. But at the end of the 1930s, the activity of Chuokai paid attention to cities again but in a new way. At that period, projects to orgnize inhabitants in cities were conducted. Chuokai approached these new organizations in cities to expand its own activities. To sum up, Domeikai/Chuokai in the Showa era tried to utilize the exteral “resources” (rural communities, or organizations in cities) to continue its movement. And in the process, the characteristic of this corporation greatly changed.
The purpose of this study is to explain the significance and the issues raised by research on adult education and power.
First, I present how power is discussed in adult education studies in the United States. There are three approaches to power. That is, the individual level, the structural level, and the organizational level. It is argued that the integration of the three levels is important.
Secondly, I examine Cervero and Wilson's theory, which defines adult education as negotiation and struggle for power. All adult education practices are hence political processes where power and multiple interests are at stake. It is suggested that micro everyday practice of adult education is a relational and political process. The theory also brings up the possibility of adult education for empowerment.
Finally, I argue that their theory can be critically examined. I discuss that their theory doesn't include a learning theory. Their framework doesn't account for the learning process that occurs in the negotiation and struggle. It is concluded that we need further study about the learning “process” founded in interrelationship with power.
The purpose of this paper is to grasp the features of staff development in further education for people with disabilities in the UK.
Further education provision for people with disabilities expanded remarkably from the late 1970s in the UK. In parallel with this, some important reports concerned with staff development were published, i.e., the Warnock Report in 1978, A ‘Special’ Professionalism in 1987, and the Tomlinson Report in 1996. In these reports, firstly, staff development was emphasized as a key of good provision. Secondly, it was considered that staff development was necessary, not only for staff with major involvement in further education for people with disabilities, but also for staff with less contact with them. Thirdly, the necessity of award-bearing courses and nationally recognized qualification was insisted upon.
But further education reform in 1990s produced effects which contradicted the emphasis on staff development in these reports. Firstly, the liaison between colleges and other agencies decreased. Secondly, the provision for people with disabilities inclined to be limited within The Schedule 2 of Further and Higher Education Act 1992.
The Adult Migrant English Program has been the leader of migrant education in Australia over the last 50 years and it has provided English tuition to more than 1.6 million migrants. Since the late 1990's researchers (eg. Welch 1996) have argued that Australia entered a new policy dynamic they abelled Economic Rationalism under the experience of Assimilation policy and Multiculturalism. Although it was discovered that each policy had caused major organizational reforms, their influence on teaching methodology itself was overlooked or thought to be minimal since it was supposed to be an independent academic discipline which ought to be free from the influence of the political climate.
With this in mind, this paper examines the influence of each policy on language teaching, especially on teaching methodologies that orient classroom activities. After thorough analysis, it is revealed that the choice of the methodology to be implemented in institutions was not independent from policy changes but was made according to their ideological similarities to the policies of the time. The following are a match between policy and methodology; Assimilation policy to Australian Situational Method, Multiculturalism to Learner centred teaching and Communicative language teaching, Economic rationalism to Competency based curriculum.