The purpose of this paper is to clarify the existance of a dual structure of youth organizations in modern Japan. This paper examines the case of Naguri village in Saitama Prefecture.
In Naguri village, school teachers and men of renown led to estabilish young men's associations (Seinen-Kai), which aimed for the improvement of traditional youth organizations (Wakamono-Gumi), in the school district from the 1880's to 1890's. Later Seinen-Kai were unified into a village level organization, and became a group to encourage industry after the Russo-Japanese War.
However, there had been Wakamono-Gumi in every village through modern time. The Seinen-Kai coexisted with the Wakamono-Gumi until the Naguri-Mura Seinen-dan was estabilished in 1922.
It is supposed that youth evaluated Wakamono-Gumi as the group in daily life, and Seinen-Kai was seen as an official group.
The purpose of this paper is to consider new phase of agricultural extension by the progress of agricultural science in the United States at the end of 19th century. Through comparison analysis of the teaching material used in “Farmer's Reading Course” of College of Agriculture at Cornell University with the agricultural experimental station bulletin, I analyzed devices to make the use of research result for extension learning resources.
At the first year of the reading course of Cornell, the agricultural experimental station bulletin had been read. But, farmers had not understood the fruit of research enough by reading the research book merely. Then, an original teaching material for the course was made. The feature of the text appears to the editorial policy that farmers tied the research result to agricultural practice by themselves, and some devices were given to the text according to the policy. This was a result of groping how college of agriculture was able to contribute to the agriculture in a new age. I think that the college of agriculture tried not only to offer the academic education but to have practiced new “university adult education”.
This paper aims to clarify the historical characteristics of public theatres and halls in Japan, by focusing on Kokaido (city public halls) founded in local cities between the Taisho and early Showa eras (1912-1930). The research on public theatres and halls has been focused on the analysis of the present. An historical approach will indicate the future of public theatres, their functions and their institutions, which are now drastically changing.
First, the process resulting in their foundation is analyzed. Kokaido founded in the Meiji era were places for city councils or social clubs. In the Taisho era, their characteristics changed to become people's public halls.
Secondly, through the analysis of the events provided in Kokaido, we can point to the following functions; A public place for gaining knowledge of current affairs, a place for education through the appreciation of western arts, a symbol of a modern city, and a free space for citizen's use.
Thirdly, the founders of Kokaido such as politicians and business people hoped they would have educational functions. However, there was a gap between the intentions of the founders and the people who assembled there.
After the war, the characteristics of Kokaido changed to become “theatres”. From an historical approach, we can find the problem of Kokaido as places for social education, which was only the idea of the political and economic authorities.
This paper focuses on the History Workshop Movement and its effects on the first National Women's Liberation Conference (Ruskin Conference) through examination of studies made by the founder of the movement, Raphael Samuel.
The History Workshop Movement, considered by Raphael Samuel as a matter of adult education both inside and outside Ruskin College, was critical of specialization in history and strove to combine the three elements of research, learning and education. The activity of the workshop led learners to understand society in terms of their own existence as combining elements of labour and common everyday life.
Seen as the beginning of second wave feminism in the UK, the Ruskin Conference held at Ruskin College in 1970 was concerned with an understanding of the power relationships between males and females as considered from the viewpoint of working women and their experience of both labour and common everyday life. It was upon the integrated grasp of labour and life as originated from Raphael Samuel and the History Workshop that the women's liberation movement in the UK was founded.
This is a case study of an adult literacy program in Nepal from the perspective of multiple literacy practices.
Most adult literacy programs in developing countries constitute a part of non-formal education, and they are carried out by international aid agencies and NGO's. After “Education for All” especially, the priority tasks have been to correct the gap in educational achievement between boys &girls and to provide improved access to education for girls and women, which is called “literacy for women's empowerment.”
Literacy studies that consider multiple literacy practices in each country or area are increasing. They discuss literacy programs for learners from outside of their real life or programs treating literacy as a neutral skill. These programs are based on a functional literacy model, and not designed to promote women's independence. Women in the Third World are regarded as only powerless, and the paradigm of global development is supported by the theory of modernization. The assumed universality of modernization needs to be reexamined.
This paper first makes an overview of literacy programs in Nepal, and secondly examines existing studies of Nepalese literacy programs. Thirdly, looking from the perspective of multiple literacy practices (‘New Literacy Studies’ as it is called), it then analyses the author's field research data.
Concerns about the records of the practice of field assistants are rising, not only in the area of adult education but also in other human service practices. It may well be possible to find connections between the records of educational practice and those of the Japanese Records of Daily Life Movement (The Writing Movement).
Focusing on the Writing Movement, this paper discusses the following:
1) The self is detached from its actions due to the importing of others' points of view into the records. Especially, when one encounters heterogeneous others, this tendency is obvious.
2) Changes in writing style indicate changes in personality. A theory of Schema based on cultural psychology is helpful in understanding such processes of change. Critical moments are doubled schema or contradiction of schema.
3) Learning activities can be designed to resolve the contradictions. According to G.Bateson, such learning activities are called “learning Ⅲ”. Dialogue style writing is an essential tool for this type of learning.
4) Mediated by records of practice and learning based on it, we can design a cyclical process of reflection and action.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the ideas and practices of reading guidance at libraries or in Young Men's Association (Seinen-dan).
It is recognized that War-time thought control of youth was planned through collective guidance, activities such as reading parties at the libraries or Young Men's Associaions.
By analyzing the theory of reading guidance at that time, the study suggests that the idea of ‘recommendation good books’ changed into ‘reading guidance’, which attempted to control the thoughts of young people. Otobe Senzauburo, who was the chief librarian of Nagano Prefectural Library, tried to organize reading parties for the farm youth.
Leaders of reading guidance in farm communities, such as Miyazawa Sanji, encouraged reading parties for the purpose of improving the lives of young people and activating discussion of the texts. In this paper, it is demonstrated that there was the possibility of the existence of reading parties which were based on different ideas to those of bureaucrats.
Endogenous development theory was popularized in the mid-1970s, and had a big effect on community development research. But, with the recent spread of globalization and neoliberalist national systems, it is necessary to redefine the theory from the study of adult and community education. I think that the main point is to clarify the formation process of the subject for community development.
In this paper, I focus on the developments of green-tourism in Shikaoi, Hokkaido, and analyze the cases of the farm-inn managers that are located at the center of it. Through the analyses, three processes are indicated, as follows.
(1) The process by which they became conscious of community development.
(2) The process by which they renew relationships with outside communities in order to overcome the inner contradictions in their own community.
(3) The process by which they construct cooperative relationships with subjects in their community.
But there remains a crucial issue. This is to clarify the aspects that are peculiar to endogenous development. Future research will aim to complete the analysis of the case.