Shortening working hours is a great prerequisite for lifelong learning. But the problem of overworking has been treated as a problem that affects only workers and has been neglected in studies of Adult Education as Workers Education is no longer carried out. A new perspective on the overwork problem in adult education is needed. The purpose of this paper is to propose the hypothesis that a worker's family can be viewed as the subject which tries to address the overwork problem. This hypothesis is developed in two ways:
1) Based on my analysis of letters to the editor which mentioned the overwork problem in newspapers, workers' families knew more about dangers of overwork than the workers themselves.
2) At a workshop that focused on Karoshi (death from overwork) held at the Mizumoto Social Education Center of Katsushika (Tokyo) in 1990, it was found that a worker's family was in a position to prevent karoshi and address the overwork problem.
The results show us that the overwork problem is not only a problem of work but also of lifestyle, and therefore this concerns worker's families.
The purpose of this paper is to reconsider shimin kyouiku based on the notion of the political subject through a reexamination of the history of lifelong and adult education. I pay attention to the theory of koumin kyouiku which was emphasized in the period between the 1920s and the Postwar Educational Reform and which influenced the formation of the system on lifelong and adult education in Japan.
Generally, the theory of koumin kyouiku has been regarded as a system of state control and the koumin (civic body) has been historically regarded as distinct from the shimin (citizenry). However, in recent years, it has been declared that there were various aspects covering the idea of fostering people's political awareness contained within the theory. Actually, we can see there is a correlation between koumin and shimin. In this paper, I took this viewpoint into account.
Through the examination, I clarify that there was a wide difference in studies of lifelong and adult education between the evaluation of the 1920s and that of the Postwar Educational Reform. The former has been interpreted as covering liberal aspects. On the other hand, the latter has been interpreted as an postwar version of the prewar state control. The difference arises from attitudes toward the the history of lifelong and adult education and the history of koumin kyouiku. It is important to analyze koumin and shimin independent of the traditional history of education.
This article aims to explore the development of a community-based approach for supporting the independence of the socially excluded, which has been at the heart of contemporary social policy discourse in advanced capitalist countries since the mid-1990s, focusing particularly on social enterprise practice in the UK.
In the current socio-political climate, structured by a new welfare mix and the related processes of welfare restructuring, more and more active and participatory forms of citizenship have been emphasised, and in particular, interests are increasingly emerged in social enterprises as a means of providing public services and tackling social exclusion. It is acknowledged by many that this new concept provides a strategic framework for tackling multi-dimensional aspects of problems economically and socially.
Following the discussions on social enterprise discourse in the European context, a case study of a social enterprise in London - Account 3 Women's Consultancy Service - is carried out, focusing particularly on its activities enhancing participant's opportunities for economic and social independence through various vocational training and enterprise projects. Finally, the article is concluded with a recommendation for the establishment of wider strategies for community-based independent support systems in the interest of exploring the potential of more inclusive career development.
This is a study of Kenya Matsunaga's theory of out of school education focusing on “Jidomondaikenkyu” which was published from 1933 to 1935. His theory contains two views; one was a scientific view of children, the other was a nationalistic view. I examine the connection between the former and the latter.
In the first part, I survey Matsunaga's background and the idea of the Department of Children at Tokyo Imperial University settlement. In the second part, I survey Keiji Yamawaki's articles in “Jidomondaikenkyu” (Research in Children's Problems). The third and fourth parts examine Matsunaga's articles in “Jidomonndaikenkyu” and his book “Jido kogai-kyouiku to sono jissen” (Out of School Education for Children and its Practice). His theory contained the view that society developed from children. His work was empirically based but excluded labor from the concept of out of school education. Furthermore, he didn't question the nationalism inherent in his theories.
In literacy learning and its practice in Japan, there is a strong interest in life review writing. The traditional model, based on the buraku liberation movement, may appear to have flaws in coping with the diversity of learners, the applicability of its practices and methods of model construction.
The objective of this article is to provide a new practice model, focusing on the narrative approach. The paper is based on analysis of records and interviews with the learners and facilitators who took part in the “Jibunshi Project” (Life Review Writing Project) of the Seishungakko using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach. We reached the following conclusions.
First, the fulfillment of the conditions that will permit the “disclosure” of the yet untold self-narrative of the learner is a fundamental, yet very difficult process.
Second, through the process of “disclosure” of the self towards the facilitator in charge, close relatives, other peers and the “response” to it, the self-narrative of the learner is enriching.
Third, such renewed self-narrative acts as a model story in practice and facilitates the accessibility of life review writing for other learners.
At the end of the 19th Century there was a rich associational culture among the working class in Britain. The Co-operative Societies were one such association. The Co-operative movement was started by the Rochdale Equitable Pioneers' Society (established in 1844) to implement Owenite ideals, and put emphasis upon education for their members.
This paper attempts to reveal the process of the development of co-operative education with the Co-operative Union and Oxford University Extension from the 1880s to the 1890s, analyse the debate about co-operative education, and clarify the educational work planed and carried out by them.
After the Foster Act of 1870, elementary education was provided by the state, leaving co-operative educators to consider what part of education was to be undertaken by them. At the Fourteenth Annual Co-operative Congress, Arnold Toynbee proposed “education of the citizen” and B. Jones said “technical instruction in co-operation,” “the systematic teaching of the principles and practice of co-operation,” and “the making of perfect co-operators”.
After that congress, important steps in the organisation of educational committees and educational policies of Jones' plan were realized. The educational committee of the Co-operative Union and sections were established. Those committees played leading roles in co-operative education. Subjects included Co-operation, Industrial History, Citizenship, and Bookkeeping. At the end of 1890s, reforms in co-operative education were suggested. New educational works were provided in cooperation with the educational committee of the Union and Oxford University Extension Delegacy.
The issue of social strata on the study of adult and local education was pointed out a long time ago, however few studies have been conducted so far. This study focuses on the influence of social strata on the use/nonuse of local education services. As a case study, I examined the influences of social strata on the use of children's services at public libraries by using data from all 47 of Japan's prefectures from 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995 and 2000. By employing a step-wise, multi regression analysis of children's literature, with circulation per capita under 15 as a dependent variable, and with a control of number of libraries, budgets and book collections, it is found that the influence of parents' educational background and fathers' income became significant from the 1990s and later. Although the conditions of public libraries improved substantially between 1980 and 2000, the influence of social strata was not reduced, regretfully.
This outcome does not show that children belonging to high strata use libraries more frequently than other children. However, it is evidence that the relationship between social strata and learning opportunities is still an important issue in the study of local education.
This paper analyses curriculum development in further education for people with learning difficulties in the UK, focusing on participation by students in the process of education. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the structure of curriculum development.
There have been two approaches to curriculum development. The traditional method is the objectives approach that is based on behaviourism. The innovative one is the process approach that emphasises the process of education and participation by students.
Curriculum development in the 1980s, led by FEU (Further Education Unit), had aspects of both two approaches. Because the objects of education were identified with acquisition of various skills, the objectives approach kept its influence. This nature of curriculum development was common in curriculum development led by NIACE (National Institute of Adult Continuing Education) from around 1990.
Although the importance of students' participation was recognised, in practice it has been limited.