The purpose of this paper is to clarify the background of discourses that honor Tazawa Yoshiharu, who was a representative ideologue of prewar Young Men's Association (Seinen-dan), and the Japan Federation of Young Men's Associations (Dai-Nippon Rengo Seinen-Dan), that have appeared several times in the post war period.
After World War II, the Nippon-Seinenkan has honored Tazawa and the Dai-Nippon Rengo Seinen-Dan of the prewar period from the end of the war to the early 1950s and in the middle 60s. And Kumagai Tatsujiro, who was one of the prewar Seinen-dan leaders, also has honored the Dai-Nippon Rengo Seinen-Dan from the middle 50s to 70s.
The question we have to ask here is why this praise of Tazawa and the Dai-Nippon Rengo Seinen-Dan have often appeared in the post war period.
As a result, this paper shows the following;
(1) Many of the people concerned with the Dai-Nippon Rengo Seinen-Dan or Nippon-Seinenkan in the prewar period who were purged from public service after the war returned to Nihon Seinen-kan in the 1960s, so, a clear continuity from the prewar period was seen among the officers of the Nippon-Seinenkan in middle 1960s.
(2) It is supposed that they had adopted the Wartime corporatism (Kyo-do Shugi) and emphasized the political neutrality of the young men's associations in the postwar period.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the theory of civic education from the point of adult and community education. The theory of civic education developed between the period of the 1920s and the Postwar Educational Reform and influenced the formation of the system of adult and community education in Japan.
The theory of civic education from the prewar time has been regarded as being concerned with state control of the people. And the early Postwar Educational Reform of adult and community education has also been seen as way of controlling the people by the state. However, it has recently been argued that there were various aspects covering the idea of fostering people's political awareness contained within the theory.
Thus, detailed examination is necessary to appreciate the theory. This study focuses on the theory of Yoshiharu Tazawa, who is famous as a leader of Young Men's Association (Seinendan) in order to understand the theory of civic education more precisely, referring to Ogawa and Matsuda's outline. Ogawa and Matsuda divided the theory of civic education into two types following the theory of national education by Senroku Uehara; political ideas and pedagogical ideas.
This study shows that Tazawa definitely had both political and pedagogical ideas, and that through community action he intended to train citizens as workers and youths and to combine theory with practice.
This paper examines childcare practice for school-aged children organized in the prewar period, focusing on the activities of Futaba Day Nursery established in 1900 as a socialwelfare project for the poor in the city of Tokyo. The purpose of this study is to clarify the history of the childcare service for school children, in the historical contexts of both school and home.
In modern Japan, there was a problem of poor children not entering school. Futaba Day Nursery began by supporting its graduating children in entering school after its establishment in 1900. In 1919, Futaba Day Nursery started an educational service and functioned as an elementary school for the poor. Following this educational service, Futaba day nursery expanded its after school service. In 1922, Futaba Day Nursery founded a home for single mothers and children as a new social welfare project for the poor, and the childcare services after school were part of assistance provided for mothers and children. In Futaba Day Nursery, girls and women were being trained to do housework and needlework; that is, home education.
In other words, childcare practice for school-aged children in Futaba Day Nursery performed the original roles of school education and home education from a social welfare standpoint.
The purpose of this study is to explain the practice of Niigata Nippo “Seikatsu-kiroku” column from the viewpoint of editors and readers' communications, and to consider the role and meaning of the column.
The Niigata Nippo was influenced by the seikatsu-kiroku movement, and established its own “Seikatsu-kiroku” column. The “Seikatsu-kiroku” column is a forum in which readers write seikatsu-kiroku essays, and editors select and comment on them in the newspaper. The form is different from the Seikatsu-kiroku movement, where comments are written continuously among the group, and discussed within the group communication between editors and readers is difficult and interactive communication does not work easily.
The “Seikatsu-kiroku” column in, which communications were restricted, was practiced by a method different from the Seikatsu-kiroku movement in the following points: (1) A method of criticism concerning content. Because the process was centered on the role of the editors, individual problem became tied to issues in regional society. (2) The method of criticism concerning written expression.
Editors corrected written expression to transmit the appearance and the ideas to readers. This is not an improvement in the technique of the Seikatsu-kiroku movement. The individual voice of the writers is lost.
The “Seikatsu-kiroku” column is played the role of communicating problem solving processes to a lot of readers. And the “Seikatsu-kiroku’ column helped promote Seikatsu-kiroku movement.
The Huangtu Plateau in southern Ningxia is one of the poorest areas in China. The Hui Muslim people who live there have historically been suppressed. In 1978 the Reform and Opening Policy was introduced, and the market economy has progressed rapidly. The school enrollment rate has been increasing ever since, but girl's enrollment rates have remained low. The lack of female teachers was one of the social reasons for the low enrollment rate of Hui girls. Therefore, efforts have been made to increase the number of Hui female teachers since the end of 1980s.
In this paper, I have examined the realities of Hui female teachers in Contemporary China from the viewpoint of career options, life and identity.
State schooling enhanced their literacy and created new opportunities for the Hui girls who had lived in deprived conditions. Their social status rose and they earned the respect of the community. In fact, Hui Muslim female teachers are struggling to face the conflict between the state and the Muslim community. They have become annoyed by mental conflicts between secular and Muslim identities.
The theory of collaboration (kyodo) with local residents has been commonly used in local government administration since the 1990s, but inadequately understood in the study of adult and community education.
This paper indicates that this theory lacks a substantive framework for the balance of the relationship between local residents and local government administration. In order to restructure this framework, we focus on local residents' participation and learning. Accordingly, this study adopts two approaches.
First, the study offers a new perspective on the framework of coproduction in the study of public administration. Although coproduction was translated into Japanese as kyodo (Araki, 1990), most studies in the area of adult and community education have thus far overlooked this terminological adoption. Second, this study analyzes the local residents' consideration process about school consolidation. An appropriate case is that of Ashimori in Okayama city. A mail-in survey was administered to 34 local education boards after reviewing a database of 1,251 newspaper articles. Ashimori was then selected on the basis of this survey.
In conclusion, the theory of collaboration has helped local residents and local government administration (1) realize their goals by using insights gained into the other side's internal objectives, and (2) absorbing the limited information from the other side and independently seeking alternatives.
This article examines adult education as a civic movement in Kenya. Adult education organized by local NGOs currently play an important role in civil society in Kenya.
Firstly, this paper reviews African states and civil societies. The paper clarifies the African context, different from the European and notes the uniquely African aspects of the formation and characteristics of civil society.
Secondly, it is shown that two types of adult education have developed in Kenya since independence in 1963. One has been organized and implemented by the government. The other has been developed by communities. Through observing both types of adult education, it is shown that they have not influenced each other because there are no connections between them.
However, NGOs have functioned to connect government and communities following the democratization in the 1990s. The role of NGOs as actors in Civil Society is analyzed. It can be seen that local NGOs are alternative organizations for adult education in Kenya. In addition they play the role of mediator betweeen government and communities and also act as facilitators, creating democratic civil society in Kenya.
The Social Education Law was enacted in June, 1949. This was the genuine beginning of postwar social education. In November of the same year, Ro-on , the largest association for music appreciation in Japan, was launched in Osaka. While most researchers have never regarded Ro-on as Social education, it had many of the characteristics of associations for social education. Therefore, Ro-on is, in spite of its earliness and size, an overlooked association in the context of social education.
In this article, Ro-on is located as an association for social education and analyzed to clarify which its characteristics belonged to prewar or postwar of social education. The concrete aim of this study is the system of Ro-on and the movement to abolish the joining fee.
This study provides important materials to reconsider the principles of postwar social education in Japan.
The purpose of this paper is to uncover an education system for adult educators from the point of view of Australian higher education reform. In Japan, there are many professionals who work as adult educators in their local communities or work places, such as social education staff, public health nurses, NPO staff. However, it is apparent that a professional education system for adult educators has not been established, in spite of the importance of their role as adult and community educators.
The paper is organized as follows: Section 1 surveys some leading documents regarding adult and community education in Japan to make sense of professional schools of adult and community educators. Section 2 analyzes trends in higher education reform and the reality of the education system for adult educators in Australia. Section 3 examines the curriculum of adult education courses in the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS), which is recognized as one of the leading universities for adult education in Australia.
As a result of these considerations, it is clear that an education system for adult educators is indispensable in a knowledge-based society. Moreover, it can be said that we should establish systems and curriculums for professional schools of adult and community educators in Japan without delay.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze Ryuichi Nasuno's theory of life history learning from the viewpoint of understanding human desires and needs, and to clarify the advantages of and issues with the theory. The results can be summarized as follows:
First, Nasuno's theory clarifies a viewpoint for organizing needs of residents from their various desires by differentiating a need from a desire. However, his theory has a weak point in the acceptance of subjective desires. Therefore, we must accept all desires of residents.
Second, Nasuno raises the necessity of choosing needs from various desires from the viewpoint of a hierarchical society. I agree with his proposal, because contemporary Japanese society has been torn by inequality. However, we must consider the viewpoint of the self and the body, if we are to understand issues such as school non-attendance.
Third, we have a serious educational problem of residents who cannot express themselves. Nasuno's theory is not enough to understand their desires and needs, because it regards freedom of expression as important. Therefore, we must clarify practice for understanding their subconscious desires and needs.