This paper, through a case study of Chikuma Prefecture during the 1871-1876 period, sheds new light on a modern school by examining its development within regional society as a function of the interplay among schools, newspapers and expositions.
First, I show the active stance of regional notables towards the new ‘civilized’ age, as reflected in their often-overlapping involvement with schools, newspapers and expositions. I then clarify the ‘cooperative’ and ‘complementary’ interplay among the three activities. I use ‘cooperative’ in the sense that schools acted as a sort of ‘enlightenment’ media in which newspapers were read and expositions were held. I use ‘complementary’ in the sense that these activities gradually became specialized in their functions, focusing on specific information dedicated to a specific audience.
On the basis of on the above analysis, I argue that modern schools were not originally conceived as institutions comprising children and teachers, but were started out as one of several ‘enlightenment’ media, through which regional notables aimed to convey information about ‘civilization and enlightenment’ (bunmei kaika). Only in the process of the specialization of these different media did the role of schools become defined and restricted to that of the ‘modern school’.
This paper discusses how Ueno Zoo in Tokyo and Tennoji Zoo in Osaka received two elephants from Siam in 1935. The elephants were gifts from the Siamese Boy Scouts to their Japanese counterparts.
The Federation of Boy Scouts in Japan had no intention of incurring any costs, such as transportation fees, salary and lodging expenses for the elephant handlers and construction costs of buildings for the elephants; all expenses were to be paid by the two cities. Thus, Tokyo and Osaka and the two zoos negotiated these matters with Siam. There was thus no opportunity for the federation to join in these practical negotiations.
Ueno and Tennoji zoos had to construct new buildings and renovate their current facilities for the elephants. They paid about 10 thousand yen for the new and refurbished buildings. The two zoos also wanted the elephant handlers from Siam to stay for several months to train the Japanese handlers. Siam then requested that the two zoos pay 40 ticals (about 108 yen) per month as salaries for the Siamese handlers, as well as cover the expenses for their travel from and to Siam and stay in Japan.
On 3 June, the two elephants, two handlers and three attendants arrived at Kobe Port and travelled to Tokyo and Osaka. Both zoos held parties welcoming the elephants on 8 June in Tokyo and 9 June in Osaka.
This paper examines Shiro Kawada's (1883-1942) notion of gender equality in his theory of civic education during the era between the two World Wars. In particular, it focuses on the formation of women's subjectivity in politics and the economy.
The results show that, based on Kawada's views on women's education and suffrage, he clearly denied that women have a unique character and role. It can be said that this viewpoint formed the core of Kawada's concept of gender equality in his theory of civic education. That is, he included civic education for women within the context of both adult and regular school education during the inter-war period. Moreover, his theory of civic education for women offered a new perspective in which women fulfilled the civic responsibilities of economic and political activities, beginning with the household economy.
Kawada's notion of gender equality in civic education is related to the discussions of learning for women's liberation that arose after World War II, and therefore, there is historical significance in his theory of civic education.