Social media has been utilized by health organizations as a tool to disseminate health related information, and as a platform for users to voice out their sentiments or opinions.
Coronavirus disease COVID-19 has continued to greatly impact the lives of people around the world.
This paper aims to discover hidden topics, sub-topics, or themes within the corpus of tweets regarding the state of emergency in Japan due to the novel coronavirus by conducting a quantitative analysis of text data mined from Twitter.
Three distinct clusters of words which represent sub-topics or themes were identified from thousands of tweets containing the keyword “state of emergency”.
These are concerns regarding the closure of business establishments and the cancellation of events, gift promotion plan strategies, and concerns regarding the effects of the declaration of the state of emergency.
Discovering insights hidden in tweets using the approach described in this study is an effective way of monitoring and gauging public opinion which leads to the creation of novel strategies as well as the evaluation of existing or current strategies.
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to determine the measuring properties of items from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children—Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder module (DISC-ADHD) across gender and four racial/ethnic groups from a US community sample of young adults.
Method: For the dimensionality investigation, responses to both attention-deficit (AD) and hyperactivity disorder (HD) items These responses were obtained from 226 subjects who were both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive while in their childhood. were investigate using confirmatory factor analysis.
Differential item functioning (DIF) by gender and race/ethnicity was investigated separately for the nine AD items from 389 subjects who were inattentive in their childhood and the ten HD items from 508 subjects who were hyperactive or impulsive.
Results: The 19 DISC-ADHD items were distinguished by subtype one corresponded to AD and another corresponded to HD.
The DIF investigation revealed that two AD and three HD items functioned differently between genders, and two AD and six HD items functioned differently for one or two racial/ethnic groups (as compared to non-Hispanic Whites).
However, the over-endorsement and under-endorsement of these DIF items might be offset, resulting in no remarkable differential functioning at the diagnosis level.
Conclusion: Both AD and HD defined by the DISC-ADHD appeared to be a unidimensional construct, which corresponded to the DSM-IV.
The DISC diagnoses for AD and HD were not remarkably biased, although some item-level biases were observed by gender and race/ethnicity.