Plant proteins are known to possess important bioactive peptides and have a positive impact on gut microbial modulation. In this study, we studied the ability of a single dose of a fermented soy protein product (P-SPI) to reduce high blood pressure in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and how it modulates the gut microbiota after six weeks of feeding. SHRs were fed with P-SPI, Captopril or distilled water once, and their blood pressures were monitored from the first to twelfth-hour post-administration. Consumption of P-SPI significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures up to the sixth hour by 25 ± 4 mmHg and 40 ± 5 mmHg respectively. P-SPI consumption inhibited serum ACE activity, increased superoxide dismutase activity and nitric oxide levels and reduced malondialdehyde levels in serum. Analysis of fecal microbial 16S rRNA of hypertensive rats revealed a significant reduction in microbial richness and diversity in the gut, while P-SPI consumption improved microbial richness and increased diversity. Also, P-SPI feeding significantly reduced the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, increased propionate- and H2S-producing bacteria and reduced Streptococcaceae and Erysipelotrichales levels. Our results show that P-SPI is a potential antihypertensive functional food which could remodel the altered gut microbiota of hypertensive patients.
Mechanosensory systems have been implicated in the maintenance of gut homeostasis, but details on the related mechanisms are scarce. Recently, we generated a conditional Ca2+ biosensor yellow cameleon 3.60 (YC3.60)-expressing transgenic mouse model and established a five-dimensional (5D; x, y, z, time, and Ca2+) intravital imaging system for investigating lymphoid tissues and enteric epithelial cell responses. To validate this gut-sensing system, we visualized responses of enteric nervous system (ENS) cells in Nestin-Cre/YC3.60flox mice with specific YC3.60 expression. The ENS, including the myenteric (Auerbach’s) and submucous (Meissner’s) plexuses, could be visualized without staining in this mouse line, indicating that the probe produced sufficient fluorescent intensity. Furthermore, the myenteric plexus exhibited Ca2+ signaling during peristalsis without stimulation. Nerve endings on the surface of enteric epithelia also exhibited Ca2+ signaling without stimulation. Mechanical stress induced transient salient Ca2+ flux in the myenteric plexus and in enteric epithelial cells in the Nestin-Cre/YC3.60 and the CAG-Cre/YC3.60 lines, respectively. Furthermore, the potential TRPM7 inhibitors were shown to attenuate mechanical stress-mediated Ca2+ signaling. These data indicate that the present intravital imaging system can be used to visualize mechanosensory Ca2+ signaling in ENS cells and enteric epithelial cells.
Polysaccharides from morels possess many characteristics beneficial to health, such as anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities. The gut microbiota plays a critical role in the modulation of immune function. However, the impact of morel polysaccharides on the gut microbiota has not yet been explored. In this study, a high-throughput pyrosequencing technique was used to investigate the effects of MP, a new heteropolysaccharide extracted from wild morels, on the diversity and composition of microbiota along the intestine in mice, as well as the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The results showed that MP treatment increased the number of operational taxonomic unit (OTUs) and diversity along the intestine, especially in the small intestine. MP treatment induced a significant decrease in the number of Firmicutes and a significant increase in the number of Bacteroidetes in the small intestine microbiota. It was also observed that the relative abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria, especially Lachnospiraceae, was increased in both the cecum and colon of MP-treated mice. Moreover, MP promoted the production of SCFAs in mice. These results provide a foundation for further understanding the health benefits conferred by morel polysaccharides.
In this paper, we investigated the hydrophobicity, ability to adhere to solvents and the pig epithelium and co-aggregation of members of family Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus faecalis KGPMF 49. The bacteria used in this study were isolated from traditionally made autochthonous cheese from Southeastern Serbia (Sokobanja). The percentage of adhered bacteria was different in three solvents (chloroform, ethyl acetate and xylene). The highest percentage was detected in the presence of chloroform, and the lowest percentage was detected in the presence of xylene (chloroform < ethyl acetate < xylene). A different degree of co-aggregation of enterobacteria with E. faecalis KGPMF 49 was observed. Klebsiella ornithinolytica KGPMF 8 demonstrated the highest percentage of co-aggregation with E. faecalis KGPMF49 (32.29%). Klebsiella pneumoniae KGPMF 13, K. ornithinolytica KGPMF 9 and Serratia marcescens biogp 1 KGPMF 19 were found to have the ability to adhere to the pig epithelium, whereas Escherichia coli KGPMF 22 showed no such ability. The ability to co-aggregate with other species and the ability to adhere to the pig epithelium are very important characteristics of the isolated bacteria.
The objective of this study was to identify the relevant fecal microbes from mice with food allergy and investigate the impact of these microbes on intestinal epithelial cells and allergen-specific T-cell responses. A murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy was employed. The profile of fecal microbiota was evaluated by the traditional plating method and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The density of fecal bacteria growth on RCM, TSA and LB plates was elevated in mice with food allergy, whereas the diversity of fecal bacteria was decreased. Additionally, the relative abundances of Prevotellaceae and Prevotella were increased. The isolated fecal strains, mostly belonging to Enterococcus, Streptococcus and Vagococcus, significantly reduced the viability of intestinal Caco-2 cells but increased the production of interleukin (IL)-8, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, CCL-5, CCL-20 and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL)-1. Moreover, cell expansion and secretion of IL-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4 and IL-17 by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells were augmented, whereas the production of IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was diminished. Although individual fecal strains had varying degrees of impact on Caco-2 cells and MLN cells, these results precisely indicate a different profile of fecal microbiota between normal mice and allergic mice. Most important, the relevant fecal microbes involved in allergen-induced dysbiosis have the potential to induce intestinal cytokine/chemokine network and T-cell immune responses.
Recent evidence suggests that psychological stress is associated with gut microbiota; however, there are no reports of its association with gut microbial structure. This cross-sectional study examined the relationship between psychological stress and gut microbial patterns in young Japanese adults. Analysis of fecal microbiota was performed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Psychological stress was assessed using salivary biomarkers, including cortisol, alpha-amylase, and secretory IgA (S-IgA). Fecal microbial patterns were defined using principal component analysis of the T-RFLP profile and were classified into two enterotype-like clusters, which were defined by the B (microbiota dominated by Bacteroides) and BL patterns (microbiota dominated by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillales), respectively. The Simpson index was significantly higher for the BL pattern than for the B pattern. The salivary cortisol level was significantly lower for the BL pattern than for the B pattern. Salivary alpha-amylase and S-IgA levels showed a negative correlation with the Simpson index. Our results raise the possibility that salivary biomarkers may be involved in the observed differences in microbial patterns.
In an intestinal system with a balanced microbial diversity, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the key element which prevents the colonization and invasion of gut pathogens. Adhesion ability is important for the colonization and competition abilities of LAB. The aim of this study was to determine the adhesion and competition abilities of LAB by using a whole-tissue model. Indigenous strains were isolated from spontaneously fermented foods like cheese and pickles. The aggregation and competition abilities of the isolates were determined, as well as their resistance to gastrointestinal conditions. Four Lactobacillus strains and one Weissella strain were found to be highly competitive against three major gut pathogens, namely Clostridium difficile, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis. Tested strains decreased the number of pathogens to below their disease-causing levels. According to the results, the numbers of C. difficile and L. monocytogenes bacteria decreased by an average of 3 log, and their adhesion rates decreased by approximately 50%. However, the number of S. Enteritidis bacteria was decreased by only 1 log compared with its initial number. We thought that the weak effect on Salmonella was due to its possession of many virulence factors. The results showed that natural isolates from sources other than human specimens like the Weissella strain in this study were quite competent when compared with the human isolates in terms of their adhesion to intestines and resistance to gastrointestinal tract conditions. It was also revealed that a whole-tissue model with all-natural layers can be successfully used in adhesion and competition tests.
The authors would like to apologize for the mistake in the Author information.
In the Author information, one Author was not included.
Shoko MIYAZATO, Masato TSUDA, Yuka KISHIMOTO and Akira HOSONO
should have been
Shoko MIYAZATO, Masato TSUDA, Yuka KISHIMOTO, Haruyo NAKAJIMA-ADACHI and Akira HOSONO