Farnesol, a sesquiterpene alcohol with an aliphatic carbon chain, inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and induced the leakage of potassium ions. We investigated the action of farnesol on the cytoplasmic membrane of S. aureus. No ion channels that would account for the loss of potassium ions were detected. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements suggested that farnesol proceeds into the cytoplasmic membrane of S. aureus cells, where it induces the disordering and eventual disruption of the cytoplasmic membrane. This was supported by the result that the effects of farnesol decreased by the addition of carotenoid which was the stabilizing reagent for the lipid bilayer.
We investigated the effect of chikusetsusaponin IVa (CS) and chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (CS-ME) from the roots of Achyranthes japonica NAKAI on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. CS-ME more potently inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production than CS. CS-ME concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β production in RAW264.7 macrophages and mouse peritoneal macrophages. Consistent with these findings, CS-ME suppressed LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 at protein level as well as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β at mRNA level. In addition, CS-ME suppressed LPS-induced transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and activator protein (AP)-1. The anti-inflammatory properties of CS-ME might result from suppression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β expression through downregulation of NF-κB and AP-1 in macrophages.
The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of autophagy following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the rat spinal cord and whether autophagy inhibition contributes to neural tissue damage and locomotor impairment. A spinal cord I/R model was induced via descending thoracic aorta occlusion for 10 min using systemic hypotension (40 mmHg) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Then, 600 nmol 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or vehicle was intrathecally administered. Ultrastructural spinal cord changes were observed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescent double-labeling. Western blots were used to determine the protein expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin 1. Autophagy was activated after spinal cord I/R injury as demonstrated by significantly increased LC3 and Beclin 1 expression at 3–48 h after injury. Furthermore, TEM images indicated the presence of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in the injured spinal cord. 3-MA significantly decreased LC3 and Beclin 1 expression and the number of LC3-positive cells in spinal cord of I/R versus vehicle groups. Moreover, the 3-MA-treated rats exhibited better neurobehavioral scores compared with control rats. These findings suggest activation of autophagy leading to neuronal cell death in the I/R injured spinal cord. These effects were significantly inhibited by intrathecal 3-MA administration. Thus intrathecal 3-MA administration may represent a novel treatment target following spinal cord I/R injury.
Chronic fatigue (CF) is a common reason for consulting a physician due to affecting quality of life, but only a few effective treatments are available. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of subcutaneous injection of the human placental extract (HPE) on medically indescribable cases of CF and safety in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 78 subjects with CF were randomly assigned to either a HPE group or a placebo group. Subjects in the HPE group were treated with HPE three times a week subcutaneously for 6 weeks, whereas those in the placebo group with normal saline. Then, the fatigue severity scale (FSS), visual analog scale (VAS) and multidimensional fatigue inventory (MFI) were measured in both CF group and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF) subgroup. The FSS, VAS and MFI score at baseline were not different between the HPE and placebo group in total subjects with CF. In CFS group, the FSS (p=0.0242), VAS (p=0.0009) and MFI (p=0.0159) scores measured at the end of the study period decreased more in the HPE group than in the placebo group when compared with those at the baseline. There were no significant differences between the HPE group and placebo group in the mean change from baseline in FSS, VAS, and MFI in subjects with ICF during the study period. The subcutaneous injection of HPE was effective in the improvement of CFS.
RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene therapy is a promising approach to cure various diseases. However, developing an effective, safe, specific RNAi delivery system remains a major challenge. In this study, a novel redox-responsive polyetherimide (PEI)-based nanovector, mPEG–SeSe–PEI, was developed and its efficacy evaluated. We prepared three mPEG–SeSe–PEI vector candidates for small interfering glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (siGADPH) and determined their physiochemical properties and transfection efficiency using flow cytometry and PEG11.6–SeSe–PEI polymer. We investigated the silencing efficacy of GADPH mRNA expression in PANC-1 cells and observed that PEG11.6–SeSe–PEI/siGADPH (N/P ratio=10) polyplexes possessed the appropriate size and zeta-potential and exhibited excellent in vitro gene silencing effects with the least cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. In conclusion, we present PEG11.6–SeSe–PEI as a potential therapeutic gene delivery system for small interfering RNA (siRNA).
We have previously reported that GPD-1116, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4, exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in a model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in senescence-accelerated P1 mice. In the present study, we further characterized the pharmacological profile of GPD-1116 in several experiments in vitro and in vivo. GPD-1116 and its metabolite GPD-1133 predominantly inhibited not only human PDE4, but also human PDE1 in vitro. Moreover, GPD-1116 was effective in several disease models in animals, including acute lung injury, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and pulmonary hypertension; the effective doses of GPD-1116 were estimated to be 0.3–2 mg/kg in these models. With regard to undesirable effects known as class effects of PDE4 inhibitors, GPD-1116 showed suppression of gastric emptying in rats and induction of emesis in dogs, but showed no such suppression of rectal temperature in rats, and these side effects of GPD-1116 seemed to be less potent than those of roflumilast. These results suggested that GPD-1116 could be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of GPD-1116 for PDE1 might be associated with its excellent pharmacological profile. However, the mechanisms through which PDE1 inhibition contributes to these effects should be determined in future studies.
Obesity is a serious medical condition worldwide. Inhibition of lipid absorption is very important in preventing obesity. In a previous study, we found that postprandial elevation of triacylglycerol was suppressed by the intake of black tea polyphenol (BTP). We also reported that BTP caused lipid excretion into feces in an animal study. The present study is a clinical trial that examined lipid excretion. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, in the first test period participants were asked to drink either a beverage containing 55 mg BTP or a control beverage without BTP 3 times a day for 10 d. After an 11-d interval, for the second test period, they then drank the alternate test beverage 3 times a day for 10 d. During the test periods, the participants were asked to eat meals standardized according to calorie and fat content. Stool samples were obtained during the last 3 d of each test period for fecal lipid measurements. Total lipid excretion increased from 5.51±1.73 to 6.87±1.91 g/3 d after BTP intake in comparison with intake of the control beverage. These results indicated that BTP increased lipid excretion.
Rasburicase has a strong and fast effect for reducing blood levels of uric acid. However, there have been no reports of theoretical analysis for the rational dose and interval of administration. Thus we constructed a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model to determine changes in uric acid level after rasburicase administration at various doses and regimens. The time courses of uric acid level predicted using our model were in good agreement with observed data, indicating adequate performance for our model. The therapeutic effects after a single infusion at various rates of generation of uric acid were predicted. The maximum effect was not a large difference, in spite of the generation rate. Then, the therapeutic effects of repeated administrations were predicted. The effect did not change when rasburicase was administered at more than the usual dose. Besides, as the administration interval increased, the difference between minimum and maximum level of uric acid became greater. However, in all doses and regimens, adequate therapeutic effects were obtained. In conclusion, the model was found useful for predicting therapeutic effect of rasburicase and individually determining rational dosage regimen of rasburicase.
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are used against diseases involving increased bone-resorption. Among BPs, nitrogen-containing BPs (N-BPs) have much stronger anti-bone-resorptive effects than non-nitrogen-containing BPs (non-N-BPs). However, N-BPs carry the risk of inflammatory/necrotic effects, including osteonecrosis of jawbones. When injected into mouse ear-pinnas, N-BPs induce inflammatory/necrotic effects within the ear-pinna. We previously found that (a) the non-N-BPs clodronate and etidronate can reduce such side effects of N-BPs, and (b) phosphonoformate (an inhibitor of the phosphate transporters SLC20 and SLC34) can reduce the inflammatory/necrotic effects of zoledronate (the N-BP with the highest reported risk of side effects). However, it is not clear (i) whether phosphonoformate can reduce the side effects of other N-BPs, too, and (ii) whether other phosphonocarboxylates have such inhibitory effects. Here, using the mouse ear-pinna model, we compared the effects of etidronate, clodronate, and four phosphonocarboxylates on the inflammatory/necrotic effects of N-BPs of the alkyl type (alendronate) or cyclic type (zoledronate and minodronate). Like phosphonoformate, the other three phosphonocarboxylates protected against the inflammatory/necrotic effects of all the N-BPs. The protective potencies were clodronate>etidronate>phosphonoacetate>phosphonoformate>phosphonopropionate>phosphonobutyrate. With a similar order of potencies, these agents reduced the amount of 3H-alendronate retained within the ear-pinna after its injection therein. The mRNAs of SLC20 and SLC34 were detected in untreated ear-pinnas. These findings suggest that the inhibition of phosphate transporters by phosphonocarboxylates, as well as by etidronate and clodronate, might be a useful preventive strategy against the side effects of both alkyl- and cyclic-type N-BPs.
Insufficient information is available to confirm the beneficial effects of implementing an antimicrobial stewardship program in reducing mortality of patients with bloodstream infections. A single institutional cohort study was conducted to evaluate clinical outcomes after implementation of a daily review of antimicrobials used to treat patients with bloodstream infections. Subjects were allocated to groups receiving either intervention or nonintervention. After implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program, the day from the onset of infection required to administer effective intravenous antimicrobial treatment was significantly shortened (p=0.022), and the rate of de-escalation was significantly elevated (p<0.001) compared with the nonintervention group. Further, the rate of 30-d death associated with bloodstream infection was siginificantly reduced from 11.4 to 5.4% (p=0.030) compared with the nonintervention group. The incidence of adverse events was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the nonintervention group (7.7 vs. 28.0%, p<0.001). Our present findings suggest that daily review of the use of antimicrobials was highly effective for optimizing early antimicrobial therapy and improved clinical outcomes of patients with bloodstream infections.
Dendropanax morbifera LEVEILLE (DP) has been used in traditional Korean medicines to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. Although the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of this plant is understood, its in vivo efficacy and underlying molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown. We elucidated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of DP using in vitro and in vivo models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages were used to analyze the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of DP extract and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In vivo animal models of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced writhing response tests were used to analyze the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects and anti-nociceptive effects of DP extract, respectively. Methanolic extract of DP (DPME) significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated macrophages. Among the five sub-fractions, the chloroform fraction (DP-C) showed the most potent suppressive effects against pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These effects were attributed to inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 phosphorylation and to activation of NF-E2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signaling. DP-C exhibited strong protective in vivo effects in TPA-induced ear edema mouse model and acetic acid-induced writhing response test. Our data suggest that DP-C has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and may be a promising treatment against a variety of inflammatory diseases.
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the best known anticancer drugs, and is used in the treatment of lymphoma, lung cancer, stomach cancer, and a number of other cancers. However, DOX has some serious side effects, the worst being lethal heart failure. Occasionally, its side effects result in the cessation of the anticancer treatment, thus having a serious adverse influence on prognosis. Agents that can be administered as alternative prophylactics or to ameliorate the side effects of DOX will be useful in increasing the safety and efficacy of anticancer therapy. Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone secreted by many organs, including the heart; it has an organ-protective effect, including antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative stress. Blood AM levels increase with heart failure; endogenic AM has been suggested in order to protect the heart. Furthermore, exogenous AM administration has shown therapeutic effects for heart failure in patients. However, it is unclear whether AM can protect the heart against drug-induced cardiac injury in vivo. The present study was performed in order to investigate the effects of AM on DOX-induced cardiac damage. Male BALB/c mice were treated with DOX and/or AM. Exogenous AM improved the survival ratio of DOX-treated mice. In addition, AM reduced serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels following DOX treatment. On pathological examination, AM was shown to inhibit DOX-induced cardiac tissue damage, mitochondrial abnormality, and cell death. These findings suggest that AM has a protective effect against DOX-induced cardiac damage.
Cannabinoids are the active ingredients in marijuana, which is among the most widely used addictive drugs despite the well-documented harmfulness related to its abuse. The mechanism underlying cannabinoid addiction remains unclear, which is attributed partially to the difficulty in behavioral testing of high-dose cannabinoids using the conditioned place preference (CPP) model. Here, we optimized conditions for establishing CPP with the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 intraperitoneally administered at a high dose. We found that the natural place preference of rats could be exploited for establishing a biased CPP model, and that the adverse effect of HU210 could be ameliorated by adding four daily pre-injections before the conditioning program. Thus, 0.1 mg/kg HU210 induced CPP when pre-injections were administered before traditional conditioning with HU210 administration paired with the non-preferred compartment. The present study provides a useful CPP model for behavioral measurement of the rewarding effects of cannabinoids.
Acute administration of olanzapine rapidly elevates blood glucose levels. However, the mechanism underlying the rapid development of hyperglycemia with the administration of olanzapine remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanism underlying olanzapine-induced acute hyperglycemia. Male Wistar rats received an intravenous infusion of saline (control) or olanzapine 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg. Blood samples were obtained periodically after olanzapine infusion to determine serum concentrations of glucose, olanzapine, and several endogenous substances. In a separate experiment, rats received an intravenous injection of propranolol (2 mg/kg) 30 min before infusion of olanzapine (10 mg/kg). The intravenous infusion of olanzapine induced dose-dependent increases in the serum concentrations of glucose, epinephrine, and insulin. Pretreatment with propranolol suppressed olanzapine-induced elevations in the serum concentration of glucose, but did not affect the serum concentration of olanzapine or olanzapine-induced increase in the serum concentration of epinephrine. Although the serum concentration of corticosterone increased after administration of olanzapine, no significant differences were observed among the olanzapine dose groups. Furthermore, administration of olanzapine did not affect the serum concentration of glucagon or histamine. We developed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model assuming that the olanzapine-induced secretion of epinephrine leads to elevated serum glucose concentrations. This model appeared to satisfactorily characterize olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia. In conclusion, a single intravenous dose of olanzapine dose-dependently increased the serum concentration of glucose in rats, and epinephrine plays a role in olanzapine-induced acute hyperglycemia.
To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration–time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0–6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF.
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are typical anti-bone-resorptive drugs, with nitrogen-containing BPs (N-BPs) being stronger than non-nitrogen-containing BPs (non-N-BPs). However, N-BPs have inflammatory/necrotic effects, while the non-N-BPs clodronate and etidronate lack such side effects. Pharmacological studies have suggested that clodronate and etidronate can (i) prevent the side effects of N-BPs in mice via inhibition of the phosphate transporter families SLC20 and/or SLC34, through which N-BPs enter soft-tissue cells, and (ii) also inhibit the phosphate transporter family SLC17. Vesicular transporters for the pain transmitters glutamate and ATP belong to the SLC17 family. Here, we examined the hypothesis that clodronate and etidronate may enter neurons through SLC20/34, then inhibit SLC17-mediated transport of glutamate and/or ATP, resulting in their decrease, and thereby produce analgesic effects. We analyzed in mice the effects of various agents [namely, intrathecally injected clodronate, etidronate, phosphonoformic acid (PFA; an inhibitor of SLC20/34), and agonists of glutamate and ATP receptors] on the nociceptive responses to intraplantar injection of capsaicin. Clodronate and etidronate produced analgesic effects, and these effects were abolished by PFA. The analgesic effects were reduced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (agonist of the NMDA receptor, a glutamate receptor) and α,β-methylene ATP (agonist of the P2X-receptor, an ATP receptor). SLC20A1, SLC20A2, and SLC34A1 were detected within the mouse lumbar spinal cord. Although we need direct evidence, these results support the above hypothesis. Clodronate and etidronate may be representatives of a new type of analgesic drug. Such drugs, with both anti-bone-resorptive and unique analgesic effects without the adverse effects associated with N-BPs, might be useful for osteoporosis.
Pulmonary emphysema is a disease in which lung alveoli are irreversibly damaged, thus compromising lung function. Our previous study revealed that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) induces the differentiation of human lung alveolar epithelial type 2 progenitor cells and repairs the alveoli of emphysema model mice. ATRA also reportedly has the ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ. A selective PPARβ/δ ligand has been reported to induce the differentiation of human keratinocytes during wound repair. Here, we demonstrate that treatment using a high-affinity PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742, reverses the lung tissue damage induced by elastase in emphysema-model mice and improves respiratory function. Mice treated with elastase, which collapsed their alveoli, were then treated with either 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in saline (control group) or GW0742 (1.0 mg/kg twice a week) by pulmonary administration. Treatment with GW0742 for 2 weeks increased the in vivo expression of surfactant proteins A and D, which are known alveolar type II epithelial cell markers. GW0742 treatment also shortened the average distance between alveolar walls in the lungs of emphysema model mice, compared with a control group treated with 10% DMSO in saline. Treatment with GW0742 for 3 weeks also improved tissue elastance (cm H2O/mL), as well as the ratio of the forced expiratory volume in the ﬁrst 0.05 s to the forced vital capacity (FEV 0.05/FVC). In each of these experiments, GW0742 treatment reversed the damage caused by elastase. In conclusion, PPARβ/δ agonists are potential therapeutic agents for pulmonary emphysema.
The effects of orally administered sphingomyelin-based liposomes (SM-lipo) on muscle function were investigated in senescence-accelerated mice prone 1 (SAMP1) for the purpose of protection against or treatment of sarcopenia. SM-lipo were prepared by thin lipid-film hydration followed by extrusion. Their spherical shape was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The obtained liposomes were stable in gastric liquid and intestinal fluid models as well as in water. In in vitro tests liposomalization of sphingomyelin significantly increased its transport into human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. In addition, SM-lipo upregulated the proliferation of murine C2C12 myoblasts compared with free sphingomyelin or phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes (PC-lipo). Finally, SM-lipo orally administered to SAMP1 for 10 weeks significantly increased quadriceps femoris weight and extended swimming time until fatigue compared with PC-lipo. In conclusion, these findings indicate that SM-lipo are well absorbed into the body and improve muscle weakness caused by senescence.
Benzylacetone has appetite-enhancing and locomotor-reducing effects. The effective doses for these two outcomes overlap, and the weight gain of mice exposed to benzylacetone is caused by both appetite-enhancement and a reduction in locomotor activity. The appetite-enhancing effects of trans-cinnamaldehyde and benzylacetone have been reported previously. In this study, these appetite-enhancing effects were seen in mice after short-term, high-dose exposure.
Compound C is a widely used chemical inhibitor that down-regulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. However, it has been suggested that compound C exerts AMPK-independent effects in various cells. Here, we investigated whether compound C induces Sestrin2 (SESN2), an antioxidant enzyme induced by diverse stress. In addition, the mechanism responsible for SESN2 induction by compound C was determined. Our results showed that compound C increased SESN2 protein expression in HepG2 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The induction of SESN2 mRNA was also observed in cells treated with compound C. Increase of SESN2 luciferase activity confirmed transcriptional regulation by compound C and this substance also increased nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2) phosphorylation, which implies that Nrf2 was involved in SESN2 induction. Next, we sought to demonstrate whether production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accompanied SESN2 expression. Compound C increased ROS production, but this effect was prevented by pretreatment with antioxidants or the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. Moreover, cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of pore formation in the mitochondrial membrane, attenuated compound C-induced SESN2 induction. However, overexpression of a constitutively active form of AMPK was not able to abolish SESN2 induction by compound C, which implies that its action is independent of AMPK inhibition. In conclusion, this is the first study demonstrating that compound C alters mitochondrial function and induces ROS production, which ultimately leads to phosphorylation of Nrf2 and induction of SESN2.
Factor for adipocyte differentiation 24 (fad24) is a positive regulator of adipogenesis. We previously found that human fad24 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle. However, the function of fad24 in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. Because skeletal muscle is a highly regenerative tissue, we focused on the function of fad24 in skeletal muscle regeneration. In this paper, we investigated the role of fad24 in the cell cycle re-entry of quiescent C2C12 myoblasts-mimicked satellite cells. The expression levels of fad24 and histone acetyltransferase binding to ORC1 (hbo1), a FAD24-interacting factor, were elevated at the early phase of the regeneration process in response to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. The knockdown of fad24 inhibited the proliferation of quiescent myoblasts, whereas fad24 knockdown did not affect differentiation. S phase entry following serum activation is abrogated by fad24 knockdown in quiescent cells. Furthermore, fad24 knockdown cells show a marked accumulation of p27Kip1 protein. These results suggest that fad24 may have an important role in the S phase re-entry of quiescent C2C12 cells through the regulation of p27Kip1 at the protein level.
Psoralen is a major active component of Psoralea corylifolia. In the present study, we analyzed psoralen-induced changes in human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells and investigated the underlying mechanisms of the anticancer effect on MCF-7/ADR cells. We measured cell viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to evaluate the cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity of psoralen. The cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, accumulation and efflux of rhodamine123 (Rh123), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression levels of MCF-7/ADR cells treated with psoralen were all detected by flow cytometry (FCM). We assessed P-gp ATPase activity by monitoring ATP consumption. We evaluated the activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) involved in regulating epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results showed that psoralen inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7/ADR cells as shown by G0/G1 phase arrest rather than encouraging apoptosis. It was also observed that psoralen reversed MDR through inhibiting ATPase activity rather than reducing P-gp expression. Our results further showed that psoralen inhibited the migration abilities of MCF-7/ADR cells by repressing EMT possibly through inhibiting the activation of NF-κB. Our findings provided a systematic and detailed description of the anti-cancer effect of psoralen on MCF-7/ADR cells for the exploration of natural compounds as novel anticancer agents.
Asiasarum root (roots and rhizome of Asiasarum sieboldii or A. heterotropoides var. mandshuricum) has been frequently used in traditional Chinese medicinal formulas for the management of oral malodor syndrome caused by periodontal disease. However, there are no scientific reports concerning these effects and the mechanism of action. The objective of this study was to examine the inhibitory effects of Asiasarum root and its constituents on oral malodor syndrome and periodontal disease. A 50% ethanolic extract of Asiasarum root (AR-ext) showed L-methionine γ-lyase (METase) inhibitory activity at a concentration of 200 µg/mL, and inhibited interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 secretion from human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) at a concentration of 10 and 50 µg/mL without cytotoxic effects. Activity-guided fractionation of the AR-ext suggested that METase inhibitory activity was attributable to a mixture of linoleic and oleic acid, because these unsaturated fatty acids showed weak METase inhibitory activities. Similar fractionation using MMP-1 secretion inhibitory activity led to the isolation of two unsaturated fatty acid amides, (2E,4E,8Z,10E)-N-(2-methylpropyl)dodeca-2,4,8,10-tetraenamide (1) and (2E,4E,8Z,10Z)-N-(2-methylpropyl)dodeca-2,4,8,10-tetraenamide (2), as active constituents with inhibitory activity on MMP-1 secretion from HGFs. To elucidate the inhibition mechanism on MMP-1 secretion, the effect of 2 on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was examined. Western blotting analysis revealed that 2 (10 µM) reduced the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase. These results suggested that 2 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression and MMP-1 secretion from IL-1β-stimulated HGFs by down-regulation of MAPK phosphorylation.
Gomisin N is a physiological substance derived from Schisandra chinensis. In the present study, the in vitro and in vivo effects of gomisin N on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatic steatosis were investigated. We quantified the expression of markers of ER stress, including glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homolog protein (CHOP), and X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP-1), and triglyceride (TG) accumulation, in HepG2 cells treated with tunicamycin or palmitate. Tunicamycin treatment in HepG2 cells induced expression of markers of ER stress and increased TG levels; Gomisin N reversed these effects, reducing the expression of markers of ER stress and TG levels. Similar effects were seen following palmitate pretreatment of HepG2 cells. The inhibitory effects of gomisin N were further confirmed in mice injected with tunicamycin. Gomisin N reduced expression of markers of ER stress and decreased TG levels in mouse liver after tunicamycin injection. Furthermore, gomisin N decreased expression of inflammatory and lipogenic genes in palmitate-incubated HepG2 cells. These results suggest that gomisin N inhibits ER stress and ameliorates hepatic steatosis induced by ER stress.
It is well known that occludin (OCLN) is involved in hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry into hepatocytes, but there has been no conclusive evidence that OCLN is essential for HCV infection. In this study, we first established an OCLN-knockout cell line derived from human hepatic Huh7.5.1-8 cells using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 system, in which two independent targeting plasmids expressing single-guide RNAs were used. One established cell clone, named OKH-4, had the OCLN gene truncated in the N-terminal region, and a complete defect of the OCLN protein was shown using immunoblot analysis. Infection of OKH-4 cells with various genotypes of HCV was abolished, and exogenous expression of the OCLN protein in OKH-4 cells completely reversed permissiveness to HCV infection. In addition, using a co-culture system of HCV-infected Huh7.5.1-8 cells with OKH-4 cells, we showed that OCLN is also critical for cell-to-cell HCV transmission. Thus, we concluded that OCLN is essential for HCV infection of human hepatic cells. Further experiments using HCV genomic RNA-transfected OKH-4 cells or HCV subgenomic replicon-harboring OKH-4 cells suggested that OCLN is mainly involved in the entry step of the HCV life cycle. It was also demonstrated that the second extracellular loop of OCLN, especially the two cysteine residues, is critical for HCV infection of hepatic cells. OKH-4 cells may be a useful tool for understanding not only the entire mechanism of HCV entry, but also the biological functions of OCLN.
Anchorage-independent growth is one of the defining characteristics of cancer cells. Many oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are involved in regulating this type of growth. Factor for adipocyte differentiation 104 gene (fad104) is a regulator of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. Previously, we reported that fad104 suppressed metastasis as well as invasion of melanoma cells. However, it is unclear whether fad104 is involved in malignant transformation, which is associated with metastasis. In this study, we revealed that fad104 negatively regulated the colony forming activity of melanoma cells. The presence of the N-terminal region of FAD104 was required for the regulation of malignant transformation of melanoma cells. In addition, the deletion mutant of FAD104 that contained the N-terminal region and transmembrane domain interacted with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and suppressed STAT3 activity. However, the deletion mutant of FAD104 lacking the N-terminal region did not influence the interaction with STAT3 or suppress the STAT3 activity. Moreover, FAD104 interacted with the C-terminal region of STAT3. In summary, we demonstrated that fad104 suppressed anchorage-independent growth of melanoma cells, and that the N-terminal region of FAD104 is essential for inhibiting malignant transformation and STAT3 activity.
Central post-stroke pain (CPSP), a potential sequela of stroke, is classified as neuropathic pain. Although we recently established a CPSP-like model in mice, the effects of adjuvant analgesics as therapeutic drugs for neuropathic pain in this model are unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of our model by evaluating the effects of adjuvant analgesics used for treating neuropathic pain in this mouse model of CPSP. Male ddY mice were subjected to 30 min of bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO). The development of hind paw mechanical allodynia was measured after BCAO using the von Frey test. The mechanical allodynia was significantly increased on day 3 after BCAO compared with that during the pre-BCAO assessment. BCAO-induced mechanical allodynia was significantly decreased by intraperitoneal injections of imipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant), mexiletine (an antiarrhythmic), gabapentin (an antiepileptic), or a subcutaneous injection of morphine (an opioid receptor agonist) compared with that following vehicle treatment in BCAO-mice. By contrast, milnacipran (a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), paroxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), carbamazepine (antiepileptic), and indomethacin (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) did not affect the BCAO-induced mechanical allodynia. Our results show that BCAO in mice may be useful as an animal model of CPSP. In addition, BCAO-induced mechanical allodynia may be suppressed by some adjuvant analgesics used to treat neuropathic pain.
Aprepitant is a known inducer of CYP2C9, the main warfarin-metabolizing enzyme. Consequently, co-administration of these two drugs may result in reduction of the anticoagulation activity of warfarin. However, the nature and degree of time-dependent changes in prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) after aprepitant and warfarin co-treatment in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy has not been elucidated. We retrospectively examined the changes in warfarin dose, PT-INR, and warfarin sensitivity index (WSI; average of PT-INR value/average of daily warfarin dose) during four weeks, i.e., one week before and three weeks after aprepitant administration. The mean and standard deviation values of WSI for one week before and one, two, and three weeks after the beginning of aprepitant administration were 0.51±0.22 (1.00, n=34), 0.74±0.30 (1.53±0.59, n=30), 0.38±0.15 (0.82±0.22, n=28), and 0.46±0.29 (0.87±0.23, n=24), respectively. Values in parentheses represent relative changes versus WSI of one week before and number of subjects. Although the mean value of WSI significantly increased one week after aprepitant administration compared to that at one week before the administration, it in turn significantly decreased two weeks after compared to one week before (paired t-test, p<0.05 after Bonferoni correction). In patients taking warfarin, PT-INR should be carefully monitored for at least two weeks after the beginning of aprepitant administration because it may fluctuate with both aprepitant and chemotherapy during this period.
Human glyoxalase I (hGLO I) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway for detoxification of apoptosis-inducible methylglyoxal (MG), which is the side product of tumor-specific aerobic glycolysis. GLO I has been reported to be overexpressed in various types of cancer cells, and has been expected as an attractive target for the development of new anticancer drugs. We previously discovered a novel inhibitor of hGLO I, named TLSC702, by our in silico screening method. Here, we show that TLSC702 inhibits the proliferation of human leukemia HL-60 cells and induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TLSC702 more significantly inhibits the proliferation of human lung cancer NCI-H522 cells, which highly express GLO I, than that of GLO I lower-expressing human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells. Furthermore, this antiproliferative effect of TLSC702 on NCI-H522 cells is in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results suggest that TLSC702 can induce apoptosis in tumor cells by GLO I inhibition, which lead to accumulation of MG. Taken together, TLSC702 could become a unique seed compound for the generation of novel chemotherapeutic drugs targeting GLO I-dependent human tumors.
Stress exacerbates allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. It is also an important factor affecting blood flow (BF). Allergic reactions also affect blood flow. For example, we observed that mice sensitized with hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) have decreased BF during the allergy induction phase. Based on this finding, we established a model for evaluating chronic restraint stress-enhanced allergies. Mice were sensitized with 12.5 µg/head of HEL on day 0, then restrained for 90 min daily on days 1–3, 5, and 6 in a modified 50 mL polystyrene conical centrifuge tube with multiple air holes for ventilation. We used the decrease in BF during that time as a guide for developing an in vivo assay for substances that can inhibit stress-enhanced allergies. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of the new method by testing crude drugs that are used solely or in combination with other crude drugs to treat stress-related illness and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Our model should be useful for identifying potential anti-stress-enhanced allergy drugs.
Intraocular irrigating solution containing 1 µg/mL adrenaline is widely used during cataract surgery to maintain pupil dilation. Prepared intraocular irrigating solutions are recommended for use within 6 h. After the irrigating solution is admistered for dilution, the adrenaline may become oxidized, and this may result in a decrease in its biological activity. However, the stability of adrenaline in intraocular irrigating solution is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of adrenaline in clinically used irrigating solutions of varying pH. Six hours after mixing, the adrenaline percentages remaining were 90.6%±3.7 (pH 7.2), 91.1%±2.2 (pH 7.5), and 65.2%±2.8 (pH 8.0) of the initial concentration. One hour after mixing, the percentages remaining were 97.6%±2.0 (pH 7.2), 97.4%±2.7 (pH 7.5), and 95.6%±3.3 (pH 8.0). The degradation was especially remarkable and time dependent in the solution at pH 8.0. These results indicate that the concentration of adrenaline is decreased after preparation. Moreover, we investigated the influence of sodium bisulfite on adrenaline stability in irrigating solution. The percentage adrenaline remaining at 6 h after mixing in irrigating solution (pH 8.0) containing sodium bisulfite at 0.5 µg/mL (concentration in irrigating solution) or at 500 µg/mL (concentration in the undiluted adrenaline preparation) were 57.5 and 97.3%, respectively. Therefore, the low concentration of sodium bisulfite in the irrigating solution may be a cause of the adrenaline loss. In conclusion, intraocular irrigation solution with adrenaline should be prepared just prior to its use in surgery.
The urinary metabolic profiles of three hallucinogenic 2,5-dimethoxy-4-alkylthiophenethylamine analogs: 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-2), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-4), and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7), were investigated in rats. For each drug, four male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered 10 mg/kg of 2C-T-2, 2C-T-4, or 2C-T-7, and urine was collected 0–24 and 24–48 h after administration. The urine samples were processed by liquid–liquid extraction, and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to quantify the metabolites. The metabolic patterns of these drugs were different: for 2C-T-7, the principal metabolite was the β-hydroxylated-N-acetylated-sulfoxide, whereas for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-4 the major metabolites were the N-acetylated-sulfoxide and S-methylated-N-acetylated-sulfoxide, respectively.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter, is endogenously generated by certain H2S synthesizing enzymes, including cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) from L-cysteine in the mammalian body. Several studies have shown that endogenous and exogenous H2S affects the proliferation of cancer cells, although the effects of H2S appear to vary with cell type, being either promotive or suppressive. In the present study, we determined whether endogenously formed H2S regulates proliferation in human gastric cancer AGS cells. CSE, but not CBS, was expressed in AGS cells. CSE inhibitors, DL-propargylglycine (PPG) and β-cyano-L-alanine (BCA), significantly suppressed the proliferation of AGS cells in a concentration-dependent manner. CSE inhibitors did not increase lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in the same concentration range. The inhibitory effects of PPG and BCA on cell proliferation were reversed by repetitive application of NaHS, a donor of H2S. Interestingly, nuclear condensation and fragmentation were detected in AGS cells treated with PPG or BCA. These results suggest that endogenous H2S produced by CSE may contribute to the proliferation of gastric cancer AGS cells, most probably through anti-apoptotic actions.
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