The migrant population is a population with a high risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection and transmission. Globally, migration is likely to have a significant impact on TB epidemiology, particularly in countries that receive substantial numbers of migrants from countries with a high infection burden. China, a country with the world's second highest TB burden, faces a considerable increase in the number of rural-to-urban migrants. This population has a significant impact on urban TB epidemics and is specifically targeted by national guidelines for TB control. TB control among the migrant population has had relatively poor outcomes. Barriers to detection and treatment have both financial and non-financial aspects, such as the "migratory" nature of the migrant population, their marginalized working and living environment, poor financial status, little awareness of TB, inadequate referral to TB dispensaries, and potential social stigma in the workplace. Currently, the free TB treatment policy has limited ability to relieve the financial burden on most migrant TB patients as would allow optimal outcomes of TB detection and treatment. Universal health insurance coverage and fostering of personnel in community-based primary health care for the rural-to-urban migrant population represent two pillars of successful TB control.
Amino acid analysis (AAA) method is the most accurate methodology for absolute quantification of proteins. The conventional postcolumn method employing ninhydrin labeling of amino acids, which is adopted in automatic amino acid analyzer, is limited by low sensitivity. Therefore, a highly sensitive AAA method is required to confirm the data obtained from mass spectrometry or N-terminal sequence analysis. To increase the sensitivity of AAA, an analytical method based on precolumn derivatization with fluorescent 6-aminoquinolyl-carbamyl (AQC) reagent and separation of the AQC-amino acid derivatives by ion-pair chromatography using a reversed-phase column is reported herein. The sensitive analysis of low abundance proteins requires strict prevention of environmental contamination. In this review, we provide a protocol for high sensitivity amino acid analysis and show that the amino acid composition of bovine serum albumin below 100 ng, i.e., 1.5 pmol, determined using the presented method, matched with the theoretical composition in with low standard deviations. These results suggest that the current AAA method is potentially applicable for highly sensitive analysis as a complement to mass spectrometry-based proteomics.
UVA (320-400 nm) and UVB (290-320 nm) are the major components of solar UV irradiation, which is associated with various pathological conditions. UVB causes direct damage to DNA of epidermal cells and is mainly responsible for erythema, immunosuppression, photoaging, and skin cancer. UVA has oxidizing properties that can cause damage or enhance UVB damaging effects on skin. On the other hand, UVA can also lead to high levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression of cells that can provide an antioxidant effect on skin as well as anti-inflammatory properties in mammals and rodents. Therefore, this review focuses on the potential protection of UVA wavebands for the skin immune response, instead of mechanisms that underlie UVA-induced damage. Also, the role of HO-1 in UVA-mediated protection against UVB-induced immunosuppression in skin will be summarized. Thus, this review facilitates further understanding of potential beneficial mechanisms of UVA irradiation, and using the longer UVA (UVA1, 340-400 nm) in combination with HO-1 for phototherapy and skin protection against sunlight exposure.
Use of data generated through the Health Management Information System (HMIS) in decision making has been facing various challenges ever since its inception in Pakistan. This descriptive qualitative study attempts to explore the perceptions of health managers to identify the status and issues in use of HMIS. Overall 26 managers (all men, ages ranging from 26 to 49 years; selected from federal level (2), provincial (4) and seven selected districts (20) from all four provinces) were interviewed face to face. The respondents identified a number of hurdles resulting in non-use, misuse and disuse of data. These included limited scope of HMIS, dubious data quality, political motives behind demand of data and an element of corruption in data reporting etc. A great deal of political and administrative will is required to institutionalize transparency in decision making in health management and HMIS is an important tool for doing so. Appropriate legislation and regulations are needed to create a conducive policy environment that would help in changing the existing decision making culture. The effective use of information requires that besides capacity development of district health managers in understanding and use of data, the higher level decision makers are provided with relevant data timely and in an easily understandable form along with the recommended actions pertinent to this data.
More than 90% of pediatric AIDS results from the transmission of the virus through HIV positive pregnant mothers to their children. However, little has been known about factors associated with unintended pregnancies after knowing their HIV seropositive status, or contraceptive use among HIV positive women under antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigated thus factors associated with unintended pregnancies after knowing seropositive status, and also factors associated with the non-use of contraceptives among HIV positive women under ART. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Kigali, Rwanda in 2007. A total of 565 HIV positive women under ART were interviewed. We examined the associated factors of unintended pregnancies or non-use of contraceptives using logistic regression analysis. Among all the respondents (n = 565), 132 women became pregnant after knowing their HIV seropositive status. Among them, 82 (62.7%) got pregnant unintentionally. Those who had two or more children (adjusted OR, 3.83) were more likely to get pregnant unintentionally. Meanwhile, among all, 263 had sexual intercourse during the last three months. Of them, 85 women did not use any contraceptives. Those who did not agree that 'HIV positive children can survive as long as HIV negative children' (adjusted OR, 2.28), and those who 'can always ask partner to use a condom' (adjusted OR, 9.83), were more likely to use contraceptives. This study suggests that HIV positive women under ART need special support to avoid unintended pregnancies especially those who have two or more children. Moreover, interventions are also needed to improve women's understanding of the prognosis of pediatric AIDS, and condom-use negotiation skills.
We identified the prevalence of depression and quality of life (QOL) of Japanese children with childhood cancer after discharge using the Birleson Depression Self-rating Scale for Children (DSRS-C) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Subjects were 118 caregivers who raised children ages 2-18 with childhood cancer; subjects resided in suburban districts of Japan and completed instruments after their children were discharged. Multiple regression analysis of data collected from 105 respondents revealed that lower PedsQL scores correlated with more problems in life at school and at home, an increased frequency of hospital visits, less cooperation within the family, and higher DSRS-C scores. To ensure the QOL of children with childhood cancer, outpatient nurses need to encourage children to psychosocially adapt after discharge, periodically screen children during outpatient treatment using instruments such as the DSRS-C, and conduct preventive interventions for children who meet screening criteria and their families before they suffer from adaptation disorders and offer multilateral psychosocial assistance in cooperation with a multidisciplinary care team.
We report here a clinical and molecular study on a case suffer from severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) due to a new type of bunyavirus, named SFTS bunyavirus (SFTSV), in Zhejiang Province China. The key clinical features of this patient include fever, lymphocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. We carried out a serological and molecular investigation in the indicated case and on relatives with close contact. The SFTSV infection was confirmed through amplification of viral genetic material using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the patient's serum, but not relatives with close contact. Subsequently direct sequence of PCR product demonstrated a homology of 94-96% in the nucleotide sequence compared to a reference sequence previously reported, in which the majority of patients originated from an epidemic area of Central and Northeast China. Our results suggest that SFTSV can occur in a non-epidemic area due to a similar strain of SFTSV that apparently affect the blood system, implying the importance of dissecting the pathogenesis of SFTS as well as mode of infection.
The conference was held to facilitate research collaborations between US and Japan scientists, and to commemorate the rich history of the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope (COH) research contributed by many Japanese doctors. Most noticeable is Dr. Ryojun Kinoshita, an internationally renowned oncologist who built the first research team at the campus of COH Medical Center in 1952. The conference received enthusiastic support from Junichi Ihara, Consul General of Japan, Los Angeles. During the two day conference, seven scientists from Japan, six scientists from Southern California, and six scientists from COH presented various aspects of cancer and diabetes research which included nuclear receptor regulation, DNA base and chromatin modifications, cancer glycosylation, circadian clock, cell polarity, tumorigenesis, micro and small RNA therapies, genomics, epigenetics, and signaling.