Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a main cause of death and disability around the world especially in soldiers, children, and young men. Since its clinical diagnosis and treatment cannot predict its prognosis, novel diagnostic techniques need to be developed, insight into its molecular mechanisms needs to be gleaned, and alternative and complementary medicine (ACM) approaches to its treatment need to be developed. This review summarizes the new diagnostic methods used in clinical practice, such as imaging of structural abnormalities after TBI and measurement of prognosis-related biomarkers. This review also describes the cellular mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine in terms of intracellular signaling pathways, the extracellular microenvironment, and stem cells. This review concludes by describing experimental and clinical studies of the use of traditional Chinese medicine as a form of ACM to treat TBI. This review helps to understand advances in the field of TBI diagnosis and treatment.
Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process for the degradation of cytosolic components including damaged organelles, protein aggregates, and intracellular bacteria through a lysosome-dependent pathway. Autophagy can be induced in response to stress conditions. Furthermore, autophagy has been described as involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses, and several studies have shown that certain microorganisms can be eliminated by the autophagic route in a process known as xenophagy. However, several pathogens have developed different strategies to evade or exploit autophagy to ensure their survival. Here, we review the role of autophagy in response to bacterial pathogens.
Although it is known that inorganic polyphosphate [Poly(P)] induces differentiation of osteoblasts, there are few reports concerning its effects on cell proliferation, especially in fibroblasts. Because we found that Poly(P) stimulates the proliferation of purified rat dental pulp fibroblast-like cells (DPFCs), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was transfected into purified rat DPFCs to investigate whether MMP-3 activity is induced by Poly(P) and/or is associated with cell proliferation in DPFCs. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blots, an MMP-3 activity assay, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess cell proliferation were used in this study. Poly(P) induced expression of MMP-3 mRNA and protein, and increased MMP-3 activity and cell proliferation. Silencing of MMP-3 expression with siRNA yielded potent and significant suppression of Poly(P)-induced MMP-3 expression and activity, and decreased cell proliferation. Poly(P) also increased mRNA and protein levels of Wnt5 and the Wnt receptor Lrp5/Fzd9. Although exogenous MMP-3 could not induce Wnt5, exogenous Wnt5 was found to increase MMP-3 activity and, interestingly, the proliferation rate of DPFCs. Transfection with Wnt5a siRNA suppressed the Poly(P)-induced increase in MMP-3 expression and suppressed cell proliferation. These results demonstrate the sequential involvement of Wnt5 and MMP-3 in Poly(P)-induced proliferation of DPFCs, and may have relevance in our understanding and ability to improve wound healing following dental pulp injury.
Bu-Shen-Ning-Xin decoction (BSNXD), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to prevent and treat age-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) for decades. This study sought to investigate the underlying mechanisms of BSNXD in terms of receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro because of the critical roles of bone resorption in the development and progression of osteoporosis. In mice, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and 17-β-estradiol (E2) were evaluated with an enzyme immunoassay kit after ovariectomy. Levels of DHEA and DHEAS increased significantly following administration of BSNXD while the level of E2 did not. In addition, tartrate-resistance acid phosphatase staining showed that DHEA profoundly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro in a dose-dependent manner via estrogen receptor α (ERα) but not via estrogen receptor β or androgen receptors. Cytotoxicity was not detected in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. These data suggest that BSNXD prevents PMO by increasing DHEA via the ERαpathway to suppress osteoclastogenesis.
Our goal is to establish criteria for evaluating satisfaction of medical staff and patients of Chinese hospitals and propose measures for improvement. A survey was conducted among medical staff and patients of infectious disease hospitals in three locations, i.e., Shanghai, Chongqing, and Nanning. The analyses included item analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, Pearson correlation and one-way analysis of variance. For the patient group, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) = 0.973, Cronbach's α = 0.962 and the Pearson correlation coefficients among the five dimensions of satisfaction ranged from 0.583 to 0.795. For the medical staff group, KMO = 0.972, Cronbach's α = 0.970, and the Pearson correlation coefficients among the five dimensions of satisfaction ranged from 0.603 to 0.854. The means on the five dimensions of satisfaction for the patient group were 0.74 to 1.34, 0.81 to 1.17, 0.78 to 1.07, 0.89 to 1.34, and 0.71 to 1.10. The means on the five dimensions of satisfaction for the medical staff group were 0.17 to 1.03, ‒ 0.16 to 0.60, ‒ 0.18 to 0.74, 0.23 to 0.72, and ‒ 0.39 to 0.37. The clinicians were less satisfied with the hospitals than the patients. Medical staff and patients in Shanghai were relatively more satisfied. Improving the evaluation criteria and survey methods with respect to medical staff and patient satisfaction with Chinese hospitals may increase clinician and patient satisfaction and improve the health care environment in China.
Matrix vesicles (MVs) are membranous nanovesicles released by chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and odontoblasts. They play a critical role in modulating mineralization. Here, we present a manually curated database of MV proteins, namely MVsCara to provide comprehensive information on MVs of protein components. In the current version, the database contains 2,713 proteins of six organisms identified in bone, cartilage, tooth tissues, and cells capable of producing a mineralized bone matrix. The MVsCarta database is now freely assessed at http://bioinf.xmu.edu.cn/MVsCarta. The search and browse methods were developed for better retrieval of data. In addition, bioinformatic tools like Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, network visualization and protein-protein interaction analysis were implemented for a functional understanding of MVs components. Similar database hasn't been reported yet. We believe that this free web-based database might serve as a useful repository to elucidate the novel function and regulation of MVs during mineralization, and to stimulate the advancement of MV studies.
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax recurs at a certain rate after thoracoscopic surgery, and risk factors for that recurrence are in question. The medical records of 248 patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax who were followed for more than 2 years after thoracoscopic surgery were reviewed and retrospectively analyzed. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis were used to identify possible risk factors. Twelve patients experienced the recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Patients who experienced the recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax were younger than patients who experienced no recurrence. A larger proportion of the patients who experienced recurrence did not undergo pleurodesis. The variables age, height, weight, body mass index, duration of air leakage, and pleurodesis (performed or not) with a p value less than 0.2 in univariate analysis were entered in multivariate analysis. A younger age and not undergoing pleurodesis were associated with a higher risk of postoperative ipsilateral recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Not undergoing pleurodesis and a younger age are possible risk factors for recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax after thoracoscopic surgery. Thoracic surgeons should pay more attention to pleurodesis, especially in younger patients.
Castleman disease is an uncommon benign lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles. More commonly described in the mediastinum, its occurrence in the mesentery is exceedingly rare, which is easily to be ignored in differential diagnosis when an abdominal mass is found. We report the case of an asymptomatic 71-year-old woman with a homogenous and hypervascular mass at the inner side of duodenojejunal junction. Based on the clinical suspicion of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a surgical resection was performed. Final diagnosis of the mass was hyaline vascular variant of Castleman disease. Here, we summarize the clinicopathological and radiological features of this disease by literature review, which may be helpful to bring awareness of this entity and improve the clinical decision making when similar scenarios are encountered.
Three years after the identification of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia, the first case of MERS in China was reported on May 29, 2015. Although the Chinese government issued the MERS Prevention and Control Plan in 2013, a novel edition was released on June 5, 2015 to better cope with the current epidemic situation. The revised Plan refines the descriptions in case-finding and establishment of case-monitoring systems. In addition, tougher regulations on close contacts of confirmed patients and suspected cases are introduced in this new Plan. It is expected these countermeasures will play a greater role in surveilling and controlling MERS in China.
The expected role of medical technologists within diabetes mellitus education teams was surveyed. In addition to items regarding laboratory examinations and results themselves, good communication with patients and education team members was highly required. When medical technologists sufficiently follow this role, it would aid patients to cope with life with diabetes mellitus.