In rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis it is observed that the streptokinase-added fibrinolytic activity of the synovial fluid is higher than the normal value and the inhibitor is increased. There is almost a parallel relationship between the amount of synovial fluid and the streptokinase-added fibrinolytic activity. In most cases the accumulation of the fluid in hydrarthrosis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis can be prevented by an antiplasmin preparation. In hemarthrosis the plasminogen activator of the rabbit knee joint synovial membrane decreases somewhat temporarily and then increases. In experimental turpentine oil arthritis it increases temporarily from the beginning. By injecting plasmin into the rat intraperitoneally or intraarticularly the decrease of metachromasia of the epiphyseal cartilage and articular cartilage, disturbance of proliferation of the chondrocytes and fraying of the surface of the articular cartilage were observed.
Pulmonary embolism has been thought as a relatively rare disease in Japan. In the recent reports, however, the rate of increase of this disease is almost similar to that in the United States. We reported already about the experimental studies on pulmonary embolism by our original method and studied the roentgenographic changes in relation to the pathohistological findings. In this paper we will report on the experimental studies on embolectomy in the pulmonary artery, especially on the limitation of the effectiveness of this procedure. A total of 45 dogs were used for this study. The embolectomy and thrombectomy by thoracotomy were performed after 1, 2, 3 and 4 days and 1 week following the insertion of the Laminaria-embolus. During thoracotomy the pressure of the pulmonary artery was measured before and after embolectomy. X-rays of the chest were taken after 1 and 3 days and 1 week following embolectomy and we made pathohistological examinations of the resected lungs. We were not able to find any literature on the limitation of the effectiveness of embolectomy in the pulmonary artery. We suppose from these findings that embolectomy should be done 1 or 2 days after the pulmonary embolism occurs and in the early stage when the changes caused by pulmonary embolism are still reversible.
Studies were made on the determination of histological type of cell infiltration and origin of multinucleate giant cells in cytomegalic inclusion body (CIB) disease. The materials used were 481 autopsy cases of newborns and infants under 1 year old. The parotid, submaxillary gland, kidney, and liver were examined. Type of cell infiltration was determined after observation of its predilection site, grade of intensity, focal tendency, kinds of infiltrating cells, distribution, presence of lymph folliculoid formation, and multinucleate giant cells. Multinucleate giant cells were occasionally seen in cell infiltration foci of the submaxillary glands with CIB disease. Origin of these cells was considered. Conclusions are as follows: 1) Cell infiltration of CIB disease occurs preferentially in lobules of the parotid and submaxillary gland, cortex of the kidney, and lobules of the liver, than in interlobular tissue, medulla, and Glisson’s capsules. 2) Typical cell infiltration of CIB disease is focal lymphocytic around inclusion cells. 3) Proportion of CIB disease to focal lymphocytic infiltration is considerably large in newborns and infants. 4) Multinucleate giant cells in the submaxillary gland may be formed by fusion of ductal cells.
The present investigation was designed to study the carbohydrate metabolism of the subfornical organ in detail: The latest histochemical methods were applied to the rat brain. The reactions of the organ were strong for G-6-P and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, moderate for aldolase, and also moderate for succinate dehydrogenase. The organ showed a moderate to relatively strong reaction for total lactate dehydrogenase. The fast-moving lactate dehydrogenase isozymes were found to be present fairly in it, as well as the slow-moving ones. The reaction was positive for cytochrome oxidase. The parenchymal cells reacted as follows: There were a weak reaction for aldolase, moderate to strong ones for G-6-P and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases, and a moderate to strong one for total lactate dehydrogenase; some cells showed a stronger reaction for slow-moving isozymes (M type) than the reaction for fast-moving isozymes (H type), while the two reactions for isozymes of the other cells are of almost even strength; they showed a moderate cytochrome oxidase reaction. The ependymal cells covering the ventral stalk of the subfornical organ exhibited in strength the similar reactions to those of the parenchymal cells for the enzymes but aldolase, with which they reacted moderately. Weak reactions were observed in the nuclei of the cells for these enzymes.
Pituitary homografts were placed in the spleen of the female Sprague Dawley rats for observing release of prolactin after subsequent hypophysectomy in the early course of gestation and lactation.
Maintaining Pregnancy: Grafting a single pituitary gland under the caspule of the spleen was performed on 3 to 6-day of pregnancy in 7 rats. Hypophysectomy through auricular route was done on 8 or 9-day of pregnancy. It is well known that hypophysectomy before 11th clay of pregnancy of the rat usually results in resorbtion or expulsion of the fetuses. In the present experiment the pregnancy was maintained in 4 out of 7 hypophysectomized-grafted rats. The growth of fetuses was almost in normal range. There were a lot of corpora lutea in the ovaries, and mammary glands developed well. Pregnancy could be maintained owing to the function of the grafted pituitary from the day of hypophysectomy to the clay of complete formation of the placena. Splenic pituitary homograft might release sufficient prolactin for stimulation of the corpora lutea to secrete progesterone which was necessary for maintaining pregnancy.
Maintaining the Lactation: Transplantation was performed in late stage of pregnancy in 19 rats and hypophysectomy was done on 3 to 9-day post partum. After hypophysectomy 12 out of 19 rats were treated with 3 times a day injections of ACTH (total dose: 3.0 i.u./day) and oxytocine (total dose: 3.0 i.u./ day). Hypophysectomy in the rat post par tum resulted in prompt cessation of lactation. In the present experiment, splenic pituitary graft could not cover the lactation in hypophysectomized rat post par tum and all the youngs died of starvation. Lactation was induced by renal pituitary graft in tats according to Rothchild. Prolactin release out of the splenic graft flew through the liver via the portal vein and must have lost some activity. It is concluded that prolactin release from the splenic pituitary homograft, which was not under control of hypothalamus, was adequate in maintaining pregnancy but not in lactation of hypophysectomized rats, due to the fact that lactogenic function of the prolactin was considered to be inactivated in the liver.
Previously Fujii (1957) has confirmed that prolactin from the anterior pituitary played a main role in the lactation. This fact was also supported by the results of prolactin determinations in the human urine (Shimizu, 1958) and in the anterior pituitary of the rat (Okamoto, 1958). The present investigation was attempted in order to support this fact from the view of numerical changes in the anterior hypophysial cells of the female rat. Recently it has been demonstrated that the pituitary separated from the hypothalamic control released prolactin. In the present investigation grafted pituitary tissue in the spleen of the rat was histologically studied. The present investigation demonstrated that α-cell numbers flactuated in accordance with prolactin content in the anterior pituitary. Especially in the lactating period both reached to the maximum. This fact suggested that α-cell should be a source of prolactin. Consequently, influences of various conditions on the lactation and physiological function of the pituitary graft were illustrated from the view of numerical changes of α-cell in the anterior pituitary.
Twelve strains of gram negative, hemophilic, small rod were isolated from gingival sulcus of 14 patients with periodontal disease. These strains were nonmotile and did not form endospores. Capsules have not been demonstrated. All strains gave negative indol, H2S, urease, catalase, oxidase and Voges-Proskauer reactions, all failed to liquefy gelatin and all reduced nitrate. The organism was a strict parasite, growing only in the presence of either hemolyzed serum or washed red cells, and or whole blood, among which the presence of whole blood resulted in the most luxuriant growth. These results suggested that the isolated strains might be included in genus Haemophilus. But the growth occurred not only on the Casman’s basal medium containing both X and V factors, but also on that containing either X or V factor alone. And it could grow on Casman’s basal medium only when both red-cell stromata and serum were added to the medium. It appears that the isolated oral Haemophilus is a distinct species that can be separated from the other members of the genus Haemophilus as described in the seventh edition of Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology and from H. vaginalis, to a certain extent, by growth and nutritional characteristics, biochemical activities, pathogenicity for laboratory animals, and the others. It was suggested that the oral Haemophilus, accompanied with the other anaerobic oral organisms, may play some role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, because the organism could be isolated only the patients with periodontal disease and their endotoxic activities are as high as oral Veillonella.
The present study has been carried out to reveal the changes in the form of the pars alveolaris mandibularis and the basis mandibulae after extraction of teeth. The materials used in this study were the same as previously reported, namely seventy-four mongrel dogs which were divided into eight groups and two subgroups according to age, sex, number of extracted teeth and time after extraction of the teeth. On their mandibles the most dorsal and the most ventral point of the mandibular body, representing the pars alveοlaris and the basis mandibulae, were observed on the basis of the co-ordinates in order to elucidate their buccolingual and dorso-ventral shift on account of the loss of teeth. According to our observations, the following conclusions appear justified: The residual ridge shows a remarkable decrease of height against the alveolar ridge before extraction of teeth, and the crest of the residual ridge lies at the buccal side of the lingual alveolar crest on the lower first and the lower second molar portion, but it is located lingually to the lingual alveolar crest on the lower fourth premolar portion. The most ventral point of the basis mandibulae shifts ventrally and buccally in the growing, but in the mature it appears to move dorsally and lingually after the teeth have been removed. The degree of changes in form of the pars alveolaris and the basis mandibulae was higher in the growing than in the mature. But there is no significant difference between the male and the female, and also between the groups extracted on the lower first molar and on all lower posterior teeth. In the growing the form of the pars alveolaris and the basis mandibulae changes significantly in six months after extraction of teeth, but afterward ceases to change. In the mature, however, it remains mostly variable before twenty four months pass.
The position of the hyoid bone as related to the cranial base and to the mandible was investigated. The materials used in this study were twenty Japanese adults of both sexes with normal occlusion, and twenty orthodontic cases with upper protrusion (Angle Class II division 1), and twenty lower protrusion cases (Angle Class III). The Hellman’s dental age analysis of these clinical cases was between III-C and IV-A. The position of the body of the hyoid as related to the cranial base showed a significant difference among· these three groups. Compared with the normal occlusion group, the body of the hyoid was located slightly backward in the upper protrusion group and slightly forward in the lower protrusion. However, in relation to the mandible, position of the body of the hyoid was constant in these three groups. In order to confirm the stability of the relative position of the hyoid to the mandible, following two cases were investigated; an ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint and a case of lower protrusion with severe distortion of the cervical vertebra caused by tuberculosis of spines. In the former case, the mandible was located far backward in relation to the cranium, while that of the latter was located far forward. However, the relative position of the hyoid to the mandible seemed to be stable in these two cases. The hyoid as related to the cranial base varied when the mandible took anteroposterior malpositions to the cranium. Considering the fact that the hyoid position as related to the mandible was stable, the muscles which connect them seemed to play an important role in the displacement of the mandible.
The vascular system in the rat upper incisor and its development were observed in black ink injected and cleared specimens of various ages of postnatal growth, and the following results were obtained: 1) Arteries leading to the incisor come from the labial and palatine sides and connect with a regular capillary network lying external to the outer enamel epithelium. The capillaries unite at the lower border of the enamel organ and join a rich venous plexus surrounding the tooth bud. The veins arising from the plexus connect with the angular and anterior facial veins. 2) With the postnatal growth the capillary network in the outer enamel epithelium begins to show a distinct regularity, while the venous plexus surrounding the capillaries from the outside extends widely to cover the enamel organ and the posterior half of the incisor. 3) The pulpal blood vessels greatly elongate and increase in number with age. Capillaries invade the odontoblastic layer except in the posterior region where the odontoblasts are arranged regularly. In addition to these descriptions, some discussions are made on the functional significance of the capillary network and the venous plexus.