The fact that toxemia of late pregnancy has effects on and stunts growth and development of fetus during intrauterine period, is undoubted according to earlier reports. However, it is still open to question whether or not growth and development of infants after birth may be influenced by toxemia of late pregnancy. The present author studied physical growth and development of infants, 3 months after birth, whose mothers developed toxemia of late pregnancy, by means of some classification s of weight at birth, and results obtained were as follows: (1) A great number of infants were born premature, when their mothers developed toxemia of late pregnancy and showed hypertension, albuminuria or both symptoms after childbirth. (2) Regarding physical growth, infants 3 months after birth, when their mothers had developed toxemia of late pregnancy and showed hypertension, proteinuria or both symptoms after deliver y, were markedly inferior to the control infants, in each class of their weight at birth. (3) Infants, whose mothers developed toxemia of late pregnancy but showed neither hypertension nor proteinuria after delivery, were inferior to the control group, but it might be due to the large number of growth level "small" at birth even though they were not premature infants born with the weight of 2,500 gms or less.
This report attempts to investigate; i) the statistics and the mode of dropping out due to mental disorders, in comparison with drop outs due to other reasons, especially the tuberculosis drop-out, and ii) give a somewhat more intensive analysis of the mentally disordered drop-out. 121 students, since April 1949 until March 1960, left school sometime during their four academic years in the medical and dental schools. Of 121 drop-outs, 21 were due to mental disorders and 25 due to tuberculosis. During the period of our survey, i.e. between April 1949 and March 1960, the incidence of drop-outs due to tuberculosis have since 1958 dropped to zero, while the drop-out incidence due to mental disorders have been invariable. Recent chemotherapy prevents effectively the exacerbation of tuberculosis, while it has been not so effective to the relapse of mental illness. The mentally disordered showed frequent recurrences of dropping out. Also, the period between leaving and returning of the mentally disordered group was longer than the group suffering from tuberculosis. Of 21 mentally disordered drop-outs, only 11 had returned and graduated, while of the 25 of tuberculous students, 20 had returned and graduated. In brief the drop-out due to mental disorders is a more serious problem than the drop-out due to tuberculosis. One of the most urgent problems facing the student health service of our university is how to prevent the dropping out due to mental disorders. The psychiatric diagnoses of 21 students were schizophrenia, depression, epilepsy and psychopathic personality with its neurotic reaction. The diagnosis of schizophrenia (9 cases) exists in somewhat equal proportions from class to class, while more students of the first year class were given the diagnosis of psychopathic personality with its neu rotic reaction (10 cases). Between of these two groups, there was not so remarkable difference in the base of outcome. Of 21 students, 14 were referred to the clinic attached to the Department of Neuro-Psychiatry of our university. We followed up these 14 cases until December 1965. From this follow-up study, we may conclude that there is a close relationship between patient’s negative attitudes toward the treatment and the subsequent poor outcome. However, we must bear in mind that the attitude toward the psychiatric treatment is not only dependent upon the subject s motivation, but also influenced by the therapist’s attitude. From the analysis of follow-up observations, we can draw the tentative conclusion that in order to prevent the aggravaion of drop-outs due to mental disorders, the psychiatrist should have positive attitude toward contact with the college community.
In various mesenchymal tissue alterations in lathyrism, as the lesions of cartilage and connective tissue and dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, a defect in formation of collagen fibers and mucopolysaccharide has been considered as an essential basic change. The present electron microscopic study was made on the ultrastructures of the bone matrix forming cells and the newly formed bone matrices in the aminoacetonitrile induced lathyrism, in order to see if the defect mentioned above is also found in the periosteal hyperostosis. The present investigation revealed following points: (1) The basic changes in the lathyric periosteal hyperostosis consist of a failure in development of the cytoplasmic organellae of the bone matrix forming cells, and a defect in formation of the collagen fibers as well as the ground substance of the newly formed bone matrix, resulting in characteristic mineralization disturbance in mottled pattern. (2) Of these basic changes the defect in formation of the collagen fibers as well as the ground substance, probably mucopolysaccharide, seems to be the same as those in the other mesenchymal tissue. (3) The failure in development of the cytoplasmic organellae, especially the granular endoplasmic reticulum of the bone matrix forming cells may be related to the defect in formation of the collagen fibers and the ground substance. (4) The defect in formation of the bone matrix may be responsible for the characteristic disturbance of mineralization in the newly formed bone matrix.
1) X-ray diagnosis has been based mainly upon the qualitative impression of the physician on the roentgenogram to be examined. It is the authors' belief that the objective or quantitative informations obtained from the roentgenogram should play more important role in x-ray diagnosis in future. To the first step toward the objective observation of the roentgenogram, authors performed a study of the quantitative analysis on the mineral contents of ulna by means of dosimetric measurement of transmitted x-rays through the forearm, and densitometry on its roentgenogram. 2) The patient's forearm was placed in a water phan tom in order to standardize the thickness of the non-osseous tissues. The distal portion of the ulna was chosen for our measurement. The quantity of the bone salt in the above mentioned port ion was compared with a series of standard absorbers (bone models) by the dosimetric measurement of transmitted x-rays through the portion, and the densitometric measurement at the same portion on the roentgenogram. 3) The dosimeric value in the mineral contents of the bone tended to be slightly higher than the densitometric one. 4) Some results obtained from the clinical applications are as follows; (a) The normal value of distal ulna by the dosimetric method ranged from 300 to 450 mg/ cm3 and, on the other hand, the normal value by the densitometric method ranged from 260 to 400 mg/cm3. (b) The mastectomized patients who had edema of the arm and limitation of motion at shoulder-joint on the same side of the operation showed the remarkable decrease in the mineral contents in ulna in comparison with the normal side. (c) Some other interesting findings were obtained in several diseases such as osteoporosis, disuse bone-atrophy and Hyperostosis generalisata.
Our results were nearly identical with ones reported by others l),2),8),9).
1. This article is concerned with the radiation effects on nail based upon macroscopic as well as histological investigations, and composes a series of studies on “Radiation Effect on Hard Tissues” in our Department of Radiology6-11). 2. The nail plate is produced by the nail mat1ix and classified into two layers, the outer and the inner, of different stratification. The outer layer originates from the posterior half of the nail matrix and, on the other hand, the inner layer from the anterior half. The growth of nail plate is influenced by two factors, i.e., formation of nail plate at matrix and forward march of the plate induced by hyponychium. 3. The length of nail plate on mid longitudinal section is 4.5 mm and length of nail bed is 2 to 3 mm on the same section. 4. Among the nail tissues the radiosensitivity is nail matrix, hyponychium and nail plate in order. In nail matrix, the posterior half is more sensitive than the anterior half. 5. The histological changes produced by a single 1000 R irradiation are slight, but ones in a single 3000 R irradiation are so severe that no recovery from the damage are observed. In a single 2000 R irradiation, the changes are severe but reversible. 6. The effect of irradiation to nail is lowered by fractionation. 7. The shedding of the nail due to irradiation, same as the histological change, is also more prominent in the higher dose and in less frequent fractionation. 8. The shedding of the nail is induced by combined processes such as the isolation of the nail plate from matrix, the separation of nail plate from the nail bed and the forward movement of the nail plate. 9. The recovery factor in nail is about same as one in the skin. 10. The growth of human nail is delayed by irradiation. 11. The radiosensitivity of nail is slightly lower than one of skin.
This paper describes the fine structure and the morphological polarization in the ependymal cilia and their basal feet on the ventral stalk of the rat subfornical organ. The cilium contains nine outer fibers arranged in a regular circle in the usual pattern about a central pair of fibers. One particular pair of outer fibers (numbers 5 and 6) is often joined together by a bridge, such as has been described previously in the cases of the sperm tail (Afzelius ’59) and of the mussel cilia (Gibbons ’61). Within the transitional region of the cilium, the central fibers terminate and the basal plate is present. The triplicate basal body projects usually one basal foot at a location corresponding to its outer fibers 5 and 6, but sometimes it project s multiple basal feet in all directions. The basal foot consists of three fundamental component: the “foot filaments” which extend from the outer fibers 5 and 6 or the surrounding granules, and the electron density is increased at one part of the whole course of about 200 mµ; the “foot plate”, a disc about 200 mµ in diameter and about 25 mµ thick, is composed of a compact accumulation of granular materials, on which the foot filaments terminate; and the “granular coat” which is also a granular material accumulated loosely on the foot plate similar to the sugar coating in a medicinal tablet. The basal foot forms the polarization on the ciliary structure. The directions of polarization of the ependymal cilia approximately, but not strictly, coincide in the area of the ventral stalk of the subfornical organ as well as in a part of the single cell surface. The ciliary polarizations often deviate slightly even between the cilia lying side by side, sometimes largely and occasionally in the opposite directions. All the ependymal cilia do not always extend in the same direction, with an even distribution and from the same plane, in the apical cell cytoplasm. The relationship between the polarization of the ependymal cilia and the flow of the cerebrospinal fluid is discussed.
Microradiographic works of the cervical acellular cementum in the condition of periodontal disease were carried out in comparison with their histopathological observations. Forty-five teeth removed from individuals aged 31 to 70 years, who were heavy and slight calculus formers and had been diagnosed clinically as chronic marginal periodontitis, were selected and very few cases of this condition were also investigated by electron microscopy. The non-exposed acellular cervical cementum of several teeth with healthy supporting tissue served as controls.
The normal cervical acellular cementum with healthy periodontium showed microradiographically the radially oriented, radiolucent structures which could be interpreted as embedded periodontal fibers.
On the decalcified sections finely lamellated tissue, characterized by numerous incremental lines running parallel to the root surface was demonstrated. Surface areas of hypermineralization of the cervical acellular cementum, exposed in the oral cavity because of severe periodontal disease, were notably found on micro radiograms and this X-ray dense zone appeared as only a very fine irregular electron dense granules on electron micrograph. The increase of mineralization of this superficial layer of the exposed cervical cementum suggests a penetration of mineral from the surface. Simultaneously, the matrix of such cementum showed necrobiotic changes as a result of the loss of their functional connection to the periodontium and this fact may also play an important role for the alterations of the exposed acellular cervical cementum.
An autoradiographic analysis of cellular proliferation in normal mucous membrane and tumor tissue of the mal regions of man in vitro: Under relatively simple methods with short-time incubation, we have studied living normal epithelial and tumor tissues in oral regions in vitro with the application of 3H-thymidine autoradiographically, in order to explain the relation between the histological findings and the mechanism of the cell proliferation, which were staying in the process of DNA-synthesis. As the material for the research, 12 tissue pieces were excised from the normal oral epithelium, 12 tissue pieces from the cancer, 4 from the ameloblastoma and 2 pieces from the others in the oral regions. By all these 12 materials of the normal epithelial tissues, the epithelial cells were labeled with silver grains autoradiographically, which lay till 3 or 4 epithelial layers above the basal cell layer. Their labeling index was 11.1% (with 95% confidence limit, 9.6-12.6%), with the mean value of all cases. Under 12 surgical or biopsy specimens of the cancer, the labeled cells were found in the 10 cases of autoradiograms. The group of the cancer showed a considerable variation of their labeling index from 10.0% (7.8-12.2%) till 32.2% (28.7-35.7%). Under the autoradiograms of 2 cases of the cancer not any labeled cell was found. With each 3 excised materials from the normal epithelial tissues and the cancers, the distribution of the labeled cells was examined respectively. By the group of the normal epithelial tissues, the labeled epithelium was found mainly in the stratum germinativum exclusively and in all basal cell layers, and located regularly but dispersedly. On the contrary, the distribution of the labeled cells of the cancers was observed in an irregular arrangement and found in several limited parts of the specimens intensively and densely in groups.