The present investigation was designed to study in detail the carbohydrate metabolism in the Organon vasculosum laminae terminalis of the adult male rabbit and to demonstrate the role of hexose monophosphate shunt in this organ by the histochemical studies of metabolic pathways related to hexose monophosphate shunt. The parenchymal cells and neuropil showed relative a low activity for succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase, but the nerve cells reacted strongly for succinate dehydrogenase. The parenchymal cells, nerve cells, and neuropil showed a high activity for glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase, and this fact was ascertained also by the addition of phenazine methosulfate to the incubation mixture film of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Although the reaction of vitamin C was observed in the various components of the inner zone, L-gulonolactone oxidase and D-, L-xylulose reductase were negative. It cannot be considered that vitamin C is synthesized in this organ. The reaction of Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase was negative. The parenchymal cells reacted weakly for monoamine oxidase. Orotic acid was incorporated mainly into the connective tissue cells of the outer zone. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that a high activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in this organ may not have a special relation with the glucuronic acid pathway, steroid synthesis, and monoamine metabolism. In the various components of the inner zone, of the enzymes tested, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase corresponded the most closely to that of NADP-diaphorase.
The present investigation was undertaken to study in detail the carbohydrate metabolism in the olfactory bulb of the rabbit. The recent histochemical methods (ALD, SDH, LDH, LDH isozymes, G6PD, and CO) were applied to the olfactory bulb of the rabbit. The olfactory glomeruli showed the most intense activity in all the layers for the mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial enzymes. The internal plexiform layer, which consists mainly of collaterals of the axons of tufted cells and mitral cells, and the axons of the internal granular cells, exhibited less activity than the layer of olfactory glomeruli. The external plexiform layer did not show so strong activity for even the mitochondrial enzymes as compared with the internal plexiform layer. The mitral cells showed variable reactions. It is suggested that the mitral cells pass through different phases of metabolic activity. Tewari and Bourne’s hypothesis1,2) concerning the relation between the nucleolus and the perinuclear concentration of oxidative enzymes is not supported by the present results. The nerve cell revealed enzyme activity in the nucleus for ALD, SDH, LDH, LDH isozymes, G6PD and CO.
Glial cells also showed variable reactions for ALD, SDH, LDH, LDH isozymes, G6PD and CO. It is suggested that glial cells as well as the mitral cell of the rabbit olfactory bulb may have cyclic activity. Glial cells in and around the olfactory glomeruli showed positive reactions for all the enzymes studied. These findings may provide the support to the hypothesis (Iijima et al. 1967b)3).
The histochemical distribution of LDH slow-moving isozyme (M-type) was similar to that of ALD in the mitral cell; The distribution of LDH fast-moving isozyme (H-type) was similar to that of CO and SDH in this cell.
In order to explore a relationship between nasopharyngitis and autonomic nerve function, the patients diagnosed as nasopharyngitis by the routine examination were observed for autonomic nerve symptoms and finger vasomotor reflex by the use of pneumatic strain gauge plethysmography.
Observation was made on the change of enterochromaffin cells in 9 types of appendicitis which were classified histopathologically with dissected appendices from 201 patients. In the normal appendix, the average number of enterochromaffin cells per crypt was less than one in a thickness of 8 µ when stained with Argentaffin Reaction, Ferric Ferricyanide Reduction Test or Diazosafranine Staining. It was observed that the value of the ratio of the number of enterochromaffin cells to the number of crypts became smaller in the order; normal type > lymphoid hyperplasia type > catarrhal inflammation type > phlegmonous inflammation and gangrenous inflammation type. However, no significant difference was obtained among inflammatory edema type, chronic inflammation type and scarring type. A relationship was found between the changes of the enterochromaffin cells and the severity of inflammation. From these results, the significance of the enterochromaffin cells in appendicitis was discussed.
Avascular bone necrosis was studied as one of the delayed impairments due to the repeated decompressions. Of 79 diving fishermen at Kôzu Island, 15 men had this necrosis (19.0%). Correlationships between this lesion and age, diving experience, past history of decompression sickness and thickness of subcutaneous fat tissues of these diving fishermen were statistically studied. And the results obtained were discussed, compared with the reports of the other authors. Problems in further study in this field were pointed out.
Dimensional changes of a cristobalite-gypsum investment and a gypsum as its binder were determined by heating, cooling and then reheating at varying temperatures. The mechansim of the changes was investigated by analysing the data. The dimensional changes were determined by using column specimens 10 mm. in diameter and 50 mm. in length loaded in a horizontal measuring furnace. Findings were as follows: 1. When the gypsum bonded cristobalite investment was heated, it first gradually expanded thermally and slightly shrank at approximately 180℃ by the primary transformation of gypsum. From approximately 250℃, it suddenly slightly shrank due to the secondary transformation of gypsum. At approximately from 400 to 700℃, it drew a slightly rising plateau by the sum of the continuing transformation shrinkage of gypsum and the gradual thermal expansion of cristobalite. At around 700℃, the tertiary shrinkage of gypsum due to sintering began to participate and the curve stopped rising and then began to drop after passing 700℃. 2. The transformation of cristobalite is reversible while the transformation or sintering of gypsum is irreversible unless water is supplied. When the heated investment was cooled, therefore, only the shrinkages due to reverse transformation of cristobalite and cooling occurred without accompanying the expansion due to the reverse transformation of gypsum. When reheated, it expanded reversely following the cooling curve, fully recovering the expansion by the initial heating, because only cristobalite was transformed again. 3. When initially heated investment was cooled before reaching the temperature suitable for casting and reheated, the plateau characteristic to cristobalite investment expansion as seen when the initial heating was simply continued could be obtained by continuing reheating after recovering the highest temperature of initial heating. In order to consistently obtain desired expansion regardless of some deviation in mold temperature in clinic, it is, therefore, recommended to store a mold at 400 to 500℃ and heat it up to 600 to 700℃ immediately before casting.