Histological changes of the parotid and submandibular glands were investigated with newborns and infants affected by cytomegalic inclusion disease. The submandibular gland was found occasionally reddish in color on cut surface. Microscopically, dilatation of the intralobular capillaries was observed, both in the parotid and submandibular glands, especially around the intralobular ducts with cytomegalic inclusion cells. We consider that these changes must be the expression of hyperemia caused by infection of the cytomegalovirus.
A combined cytochemical and electron microscopic demonstration of acid phosphatase activity of melanosomes in melanocytes was carried out on B-16 and Harding-Passey mouse melanoma and the retinal pigment epithelium of white leghorn chick embryos. The presence of histochemically detectable acid phosphatase activity in the melanosomes was clearly demonstrated. The parallel relationship between melanization and the acid phosphatase activity was observed. The maturation of the melanosome is supposed to relate some what to the lysosome, which is specifically marked by the presence of acid phosphatase activity in the cell.
An experimental and clinical study on DI-22 a fat emulsion for intravenous infusion and the first such product to be developed in Japan is presented. DI-22 consists of linoleic acid oleic acid, palmitic acid and linolenic acid which is made isotonic with glycerol. The size of the fat particles are less than 1.0 µ, in diameter and are uniform in shape. The fluctuation of hemoglobin and hematcrit was the same as that of Intralipid and no anemia was observed. The triglyceride curve also was the same as that of Intralipid with neither increase nor accumulation of the product. No remarkable changes were noted in the phospholipid values and plasma fat elimination from the blood stream was found to be very satisfactory when given at a speed of 40 drops per minute (100 150 ml per hour). The side effects were very mild with nausea noted in one case, phlebitis in one case and a peculiar odor experienced in 3 cases out of the 30 cases. No sign of over-loading syndrome was observed and the liver and thrombo-test values were within normal limits. No toxicity was noted. It is concluded that DI-22 is not only safe for clinical use but is valuable for studies of metabolic changes to be made in the future.
Experimental and clinical studies were made on X-Ray irradiated bone grafts for mandibular defects after removal of tumor. 1. Experimental study: Three-centimeter long rib of rabbit was taken out and, after X-Ray irradiation with 3,000 or 5,000 R in vitro, transplanted between the inferior boarders of the mandible of the same rabbit in the form of a bridge. Rabbits were sacrificed periodically and the grafted portion was observed by microscope. In X-Ray irradiated bone grafts, the transplant was joined to the mandible by a new bone arising from the host mandibular bone and the graft was being gradually replaced by the new bone. Ninety days after the operation, the newly formed bone had completely taken the form of a bridge. At the same time, on the healing process there was no difference between the two irradiated transplants. However, when compared with fresh autogenous bone grafts, the healing process was delayed, and the new bone formation by metaplasia of the surrounding mesenchymal tissue in the mid-area of the grafted bone could not be observed. 2. Clinical study: Six cases in which lower boarder of the mandible had not been invaded by tumor were selected. After partial mandibulectomy, the intact inferior compact bone was separated from the resected segment, irradiated with a dose of 5,000 or 10,000 R and immediately replanted in the resected portion. Of the six cases, four gave excellent results, and the remaining two cases were unfavorable, clue to absorption and fracture in one, and infection in the other. Remaining piece of graft was removed and fresh autogenous iliac bone was grafted. All six cases showed no sign of recurrence of tumor. If suitable cases are selected, X-Ray irradiated bone replantation can be utilized clinically.
When Candida albicans and Lactobacillus acidophilus are inoculated simultaneously on a 1% glucose-added BHI medium so that the total cell number of both species becomes 105-6 cells/ml and mixed culture carried out, Lactobacillus survives for a comparatively long time although it increases and decreases in cell number markedly. On the contrary, Candida grows regardless of the presence of Lactobacillus, showing its characteristic growth curve. The change in the cell number of these organisms during the period of mixed culture is related to the accumulation of the metabolic substances such as alcohol or lactic acid in the medium. But even if the growing medium, the quantity of the inoculated organisms, the time of inoculation, or the ratio of mixture of inoculated species were changed, a similar result in the cell number is observed in many cases. If the antibiotic such as erythromycin or trichomycin is added to this mixed culture to the degree that the growth of Candida and Lactobacillus is not disturbed so much, it acts advantageously for Candida, but not for Lactobacillus. It is, therefore, considered that a complicated change in the cell number is observed because of symbiosis and antibiosis between the two organisms, when Candida and Lactobacillus co-exist in the same circumstance. It is suggested that this is related not only to the size, shape and the metabolic system of the organisms, but also to the condition of the growing medium and the ratio of the quantity of the inoculated organisms.
The changes of the rat periodontium in experimental traumatic occlusion were studied histopathologically and autoradiographically. Forty seven rats received. excessive amalgam fillings in the right maxillary first and second molars. The animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 35 and 65 days. The periodontium of the right mandibular fast molar was observed histologically. After receiving amalgam fillings, sixteen rats were intraperitoneally injected with 5 µc of 3H-proline per gram of body weight. They were killed at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after injection. The periodontium of the right mandibular first molar was studied autoradiographically as the experimental side. The initial injury of the periodontium was already observed at 1 day and the injury became most severe at 7 days. But after 7 days the injured areas were gradually repaired and by 14 days they were almost restored to the normal condition. The histopathologic changes of the periodontium in the injury or repair process were characterized by decreased or increased cellularity and necrosis of the periodontal membrane, narrowing or widening of the periodontal space and resorption or regeneration of alveolar bon e and cementum. The osteoporotic changes of the alveolar bone were not observed. There were no definite adaptive alterations in the morphology of the periodontium after traumatic tissue changes disappeared. The most affected area was the bifurcation. No pocket formation or gingival inflammation was found in all of the experimental animals. Collagen formation in the periodontal tissues except the periodontal membrane at the distal root apex was already depressed in the initial experimental periods by traumatic occlusion. The formation of the alveolar bone was more influenced by occlusal disharmony than that of the cementum.
The lateral excursions of mandible in empty mouth and masticatory movements have been recorded at the incision inferius and analyzed three-dimensionally, and compared with the occlusal facets of the posterior teeth.
Eighteen cases of pleomorphic adenoma and three cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma were studied by electron microscopy, and the following results were obtained. 1) So-called neoplastic myoepithelial cells could be identified in pleomorphic adenoma and not in adenoid cystic carcinoma. These cells varied in morphologic nature of the intracytoplasmic filaments according to the pattern of the pleomorphic adenoma. 2) There were two kinds of epithelial mucin. One was the normal mucin which was a secretory product within ductal lumina, while the other was the abnormal mucin which was divided in to type I and type II. Type I of the abnormal mucin stayed mostly in the intercellular spaces of the parenchyma and had a tendency to flow out into stromal tissues. Type II was secreted directly from parenchymal cells to stromal tissues through the basement membrane. It was demonstrated that pleomorphic adenoma had both types of the abnormal mucin and adenoid cystic carcinoma had only type I. 3) It seemed to be natural to consider on the base of electron microscopic findings that the abnormal mucin had rather significant roles in formation of the myxoid and chondroid areas of pleomorphic adenoma and also in hyalinization of the cylindrical stroma of adenoid cystic carcinoma.
The ultrastructure of the attached bacterial plaque and the exposed acellular cementum due to periodontal disease was examined under the electron microscope. The author always compared the undecalcified ultrathin sections with the sections decalcified with PTA on the grids. 1) When the attached bacterial plaque was not calcified, no differences were found in density and crystal size between the surface layer and the inner layer of the cementum, but some inorganic crystals of the surface layer were more or less disarranged and some crystals of the cementum were left in the interbacterial matrix. On the decalcified sections, the surface layer of the cementum showed a narrow zone of reticular structures. 2) when the bacterial plaque was partly calcified from the side of exposed cementum, the surface layer was electron dense and composed of large crystals, the size of which was several times as large as those in the inner layer. The same large crystals as those in the surface layer were left in the interbacterial matrix. On the decalcified sections, the surface layer of exposed cementum showed a wide zone of reticular structures, and collagen matrix at that layer lost peculiar periodicity. This electron dense, hypermineralized zone of exposed cementum was considered probably to be related to the recrystallization phenomenon. 3) When the bacterial plaque was almost completely calcified, destructive changes of the cementum surface were of slight degree in general. The crystals of the surface layer of cementum were rather compact and some crystals were disarranged. A homogenous structure containing calcified bacteria was present over some cementum surface. On the decalcified sections, this structure was more clearly observed than that seen on the undecalcified sections. This structure was probably related to some extent with saliva and regarded as the acquired pellicle.