Roth free vitamin B12 (B12) and B12 bound to the intrinsic factor (IF) were taken up by the microorganisms. The amount of B12 taken up in the presence of IF was fairly smaller than in the absence of IF. The stability of the B12-IF complex was influenced by the temperature as well as by pH. The bacterial uptake of B12 appeared to be favourable under the condition where the vitamin dissociated easily from IF. Moreover, when the B12-IF complex was incubated with the microorganisms, the free IF activity in the supernatant increased according to the bacterial uptake of B12. It seemed that the microorganisms took up B12 after the liberation of B12 from IF. The amount of B12 available for bacterial uptake was regulated by the rate of dissociation of the B12-IF complex as well as by the reciprocal changes in the size of the bacterial population and IF available. It is suggested that R12 malabsorption in the blind loop syndrome could be partly explained by the bacterial uptake of B12 in the presence of abundant microorganisms in the loop and by the predominant dissociation of the vitamin from IF.
The nasopharynx is an interesting organ, however, investigations on the organ has been almost undeveloped, because this area is hidden and inconspicuous. Inflammation of the nasopharynx appears frequently in combination with allergic diseases and rheumatism. In this case, most become cured or better only by the treatment of nasopharyngitis itself. The authors have tried to clear up the mechanism by measuring the plasma 11-OHCS levels using the method of De Moor et al. (1960). The authors measured the plasma 11-OHCS levels before and immediately after the stimulation of the nasopharynx and calculated the increase rate between the two. The rates of 32 of 35 simple nasopharyngitis patients (91%) were increased. Those of 9 of 12 allergic rhinitis cases (75%) were decreased or unchanged. Those of 5 of 6 steroid-treated patients (83%) were decreased or unchanged. When the nasopharynx was not stimulated the plasma 11-OHCS levels were unchanged or decreased a little. The authors have proved that the increase rate is almost in proportion to the degree of the inflammation except in the allergic rhinitis cases and steroid-treated patients, being 30% or less in the mild cases, 20-50% in the moderate cases, and 40% or more in the severe cases. Generally speaking, as the inflammation subsides, the increase in the plasma 11-OHCS levels becomes mild. Because of the fact that the nasopharyngeal stimulation raises the plasma 11-OHCS level, the authors concluded that treatment of nasopharyngitis is an effective therapy for allergic rhinitis and rheumatism. It is also effective for those who require steroid therapy.
This study using an airway model was carried out to compare the dynamic behavior of SO2, NO2 , and SO2-NaCl aerosol mixture in the respiratory system after the inhalation. The model airway was constructed as follows: The inner wall of a glass tube was lined with moistened filter papers. Six such glass tubes were connected in series, and the last tube was connected with two bubblers in series. After SO2, NO2, or SO2-NaCI aerosol mixture was passed through the said glass tube-bubbler system for 15 minutes, the amount of SO, or NO, absorbed by each glass tube and the bubblers was measured. The following results were obtained: (1) Most of SO2 was absorbed by the first glass tube, and only a little by the distal glass tubes. Only a small amount of SO2 reached the bubblers. (2) Only a small quantity of NO2 was taken up by the glass tubes, and consequently, most of it reached the bubblers. (3) As for the SO2 and NaCl submicron-sized aerosol mixture, the pattern of SO2 absorption by the glass tubes was almost similar to that observed for SO2 alone, but a considerable amount of SO2 was detected in the bubblers. These results strongly support the generally accepted hypotheses that (1) a respiratory effect of SO, develops immediately after being absorbed by the upper airway, (2) NO2 can reach the lungs producing delayed effect on it without being absorbed at the upper airway, and (3) the submicron-sized aerosol might have the capacity to adsorb SO, and carry it into the deeper airway.
Tenacious sputum of a patient with a respiratory disease is one of the major components of airway obstruction. It is important in such disorders to eliminate effectively such viscid sputum. Great significance is therefore given to the development of a method which can exactly measure the viscosity of sputum. Rheological properties of sputum were therefore examined and the following results were obtained: Sputum has the properties of non-Newtonian liquid; there is a yield point in its fluidity and thus, it is meaningful for the measurement of the viscosity to determine the yield value; it is also necessary to determine the adhesiveness, on which expectoration depends and finally, the pulmonary function must at the same time be taken into consideration.
Interpretation of the fine structures of cytologic smears is needed for further understanding of morphological and physiological properties of malignant cells in the smears. However, application of electron microscopic study usually has been limited to histologic tissues affected with diseases, taken by either biopsy or autopsy materials. Several methods have been devised for sampling the cultured or smeared cells for electron microscopy but it is inconvenient to apply these methods for routine examination of cytologic smears because of requiring skillful technique and expensive instruments. The present method makes it easy to obtain electron microscopic samples from the cytologic smears and to observe the same cells in the smears with both light and electron microscopes. The results of application of this technique are shown in the electron micrographs of vaginal and cervical smears of the carcinoma of portio cervix or chronic endocervicitis. There are not any distinctive differences in the details of the remaining ultrastructures, such as endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, free ribosomes, tonofibrils, cytoplasmic membrane, nuclear chromatin granules, desmosomes, etc., as compared with those of usual block tissues.
The orthodontic tooth movement may be considered to be affected by hormones. An attempt was made to examine the relation between parathyroid hormone and osteoclast activity during tooth movement. One hundred and thirty-four Wistar strain rats were divided into three groups; sham-operated, parathyroidectomized, and parathyroidectomized plus parathyroid extract treated. Then the experimental tooth movement was made on the upper right first molar. Observations were done histologically on the interradicular septum of the first molar, and osteoclasts were counted for the purpose of estimating the degree of bone resorption quantitatively. The findings are summarized as follows: 1. Incident to the experimental tooth movement, the decrease of parathyroid hormone results in the inhibition of the appearance of osteoclasts and bone resorption on the compression side, as well as the appearance of osteoblasts on the tension side. 2. The increase of parathyroid hormone results in the accelation of the appearance of osteoclasts and bone resorption on the compression side, and the inhibition of the appearance of osteoblasts on the tension side.