This study was carried out to find physiological reactions to cold, with reference to difference in the reactions between male and female human subjects. Experiments were made on six each healthy male and female students aged 19 to 25 years, in summer and winter. They wore standardized clothes and lay on a bed for 2 hours in an artificial climate room at about 10°C. Heat production, skin temperature, sublingual temperature, rectal temperature, urinary 17-Ketosteroids (17 KS), etc., were measured and the following results were obtained. 1. Heat production for females was lower than that for males, and decrease in the mean skin temperature for males due to the cold exposure was bigger than that for females. 2. On the interrelationships between heat production and mean skin tern-perature, no remarkable difference was noticed in the average values for males between summer and winter, but female students were weak to cold in summer, and contrarily, becam e stronger in winter. It seems that females have an ability of acclimatization to cold by the seasonal shift. 3. 17 KS for males increased at the cold exposure, but no remarkable change was seen for females in winter 4. From these evidences, the female subjects may be assumed to have a physiological adaptability to cold. This fact could be related not only to the sexual difference in physical characteristics such as skinfold thickness, etc., but also to that in feature and function of endocrine system.
The histological findings of the surgical specimen of a case of acute regional enteritis showed a bridge formation of villous epithelial cells and diffuse intervillous adhesion due to extensive bridge formation. These phenomena are thought to be a transitional form to fiat mucosa due to inflammation.
We reported on an autopsy case of glioblastoma multiforme which metastasized widely to the scalp, pericranium, cervical lymph nodes, spinal cord and cauda equina. Fifty-three cases of extracranial metastasis in the world including our case were analyzed. Forty- two cases were males and 11 females. The highest incidence was in the fifth decade. Only two cases had no operative intervention in their history. Metastases were found in the lymph nodes (26%), lungs (22%), bone (19%), liver (9%), operative flap (8%) and dural venous system (3%). We discussed the five modes of metastasizing route from the primary brain tumor to the extracranial region. We emphasized that in the case of glioblastoma multiforme operated or to be operated upon, systemic treatment was necessary in addition to the local application of chemotherapeutic agents by infusion and/or irradiation. We discussed about the immunological problem of glioma in our case, considering the extremely rapid growth of the metastatic tumors ensuing from the operative removal of a large part of the primary tumor and its extracranial cervical extention.
Ninety five brain scans were carried out on 70 infants and children. Technetium 99m pertechnetate was used exclusively, because of its energy level and short physical half-life. Brain scanning provides valuable information regarding the presence of many kinds of neoplastic as well as non-neoplastic lesions. Positive scan results related to the nature of the lesions are; infections 67%, vascular lesions 66%, tumors 753, trauma 67%, subdural hematoma 88%, congenital diseases 59%, degenerative diseases 0% and convulsive disorders 33%. Scan findings were compared with the findings of plain X-rays of skull, cerebral angiography, pneumoencephalography and electroencephalography. The accuracy of scanning does not necessarily exceed that of other methods of investigation, but it provides a valuable information and increases the accuracy of diagnosis in most cases in children. The possible mechanism of positive scanning in subdural hematoma was studied. The interval between the injection and the timing of scanning was found to be an important factor in diagnosis. Brain scanning should have a place of primary importance for the work-up of children in neurosurgical practice.
Recently the relationship between malignant diseases and serum lactic dehydrogenase (SLDH) is being studied with increasing intensity. The purpose of the present study was made to determine the clinical usefulness of SLDH-III activity in the diagnosis of malignant diseases and was made not only to detect the clinical usefulness of SLDH-III activity in the evaluation of the chemotherapeutic effect on cancer but also to detect the clinical value of SLDH III activity during the follow-up period after the removal of the tumor. The present report is based on studies on one hundred and twenty four patients with carcinoma of various origins and twenty-six patients with benign diseases in whom the SLDH activity and isozymes were measured. The following findings were obtained. SLDH activity increased above the normal range in about seventy per cent of ninety-eight malignant diseases. ST.DH-III activity had an intimate correlation with the clinical therapeutic response. During the follow-up period, the SLDH-III activity apparently decreased in three weeks after the removal of the tumor and increased steadily above the normal when the tumor recurred. These changes were named as the U pattern of SLDH-III. The measurement of the SLDH-III activity is considered to be useful in the diagnosis of malignant diseases and has a considerable value in the evaluation of the chemotherapeutic effect on cancer and in the early detection on the recurrence of the tumor.
In order to differentiate the layers physiologically recalcifiable and unrecalcifiable of carious dentin, a variety of dyes in various solvents were tried and a 0.5% basic fuchsin-propylene glycol solution was found to stain specifically the superficial layer of carious dentin distinctly and not to stain the deeper layer at all. The relation of the fuchsin-staining front to the softening, natural discoloration, and bacterial invasion fronts was investigated on the sections of 41 freshly extracted human teeth with dentin caries. The softening front was always the deepest, the discoloration front the next, and the bacterial front was the most superficial. The fuchsin-stained front roughly corresponded to the bacterial front and the former was usually ahead in acute decays and behind in chronic decays.
Seventy-five subjects were examined for the incidence of isolation of mycoplasmas from their oral cavities, identification of mycoplasma strains isolated, the number of viable mycoplasma organisms in oral cavities, and antibody response to M. salivarium and M. orale 1. The subjects were divided into 21 edentulous and 54 dentulous ones. Dentulous subjects were subdivided tentatively into normal, gingivitis, and periodontitis groups on the basis of their periodontal score. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 7 of 21 edentulous subjects, all of whom did not use complete dentures, 18 of 22 subjects of normal group, and all of the subjects in gingivitis and periodontitis groups. The number of viable mycoplasma organisms in oral cavities was significantly greater in gingivitis and periodontitis groups than edentulous and normal groups. There was a tendency for subjects in the periodontitis group to have a greater number of viable mycoplasma organisms than those in the gingivitis group, although there was no significant difference between these two groups. The number of M. salivarium and M. orale 1 strains isolated from edentulous, normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups was in the ratio 1:1, 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1, respectively. On the other hand, as a result of titration of IHA antibodies to M. salivarium and M. orale 1 antigens in dentulous subjects, the incidence of detecting antibodies to M. salivarium antigen was lower in patients than in healthy persons, while to M. orale 1 antigen increased in the order of normal, gingivitis, and periodontitis groups.
The effect of DA-398, a new anti-inflammatory agent of the non-steroid group, on carrageenin-induced edema was examined experimentally, and its inhibitory effect on rats, weighing 120-140 g, by administration of 30 to 50 mg/kg was recognized. The clinical effect of this drug on inflammatory and postoperative cases in oral surgery was estimated, dividing the 70 subjects into five groups whose members were administered 150-600 mg of DA-398 or placebo. It was thereby found that a daily administration of more than 300 mg would be clinically effective. As side effects produced by DA-398, some slight symptoms like stomachache and nausea were found in 4 cases (7.3%) out of the total 55 cases.
The authors successfully developed a new investment material which consists of pure quartz powder and can be hardened without any bonding agent except mixing water. By controlling purity, grain shape and grain size distribution of this silica powder, it can be easily spatulated with mixing water, poured into a casting ring and then hardened or coagulated. This new investment material has many excellent characteristics which arc: high temperature stability, easy removal of investment from the casting, possibility of re-use of the investment, etc. In this study, grain size distribution, X-ray diffraction, setting time, setting shrinkage, thermal expansion, and compressive strength of the new investment were determined, and some casting experiments were performed with it. Judging from the results of many investigations, the best grain size distribution was 0-10 µ 38.1%. 0-40 µ 80.1%, 0-50 µ 85.5%, 0-75 µ 100%. Purification procedure was heating with sodium meta-phosphate, washing by dilute hydrochloric acid, and decantation with a large amount of water. The grain shape was made nearly spherical by dry and wet milling treatment for over 100 hours. The normal W/P ratio with distilled water was 0.30 and the compressive strengths were 6.0 kg/cm2 and 4.6 kg/cm2 the former was the green strength and the latter the fired strength. When invested by a newly developed vacuum investing method, this value increased to 7.6 kg/cm2. By adding colloidal silica and phosphoric acid to the mixing water, the investment flour can be spatulated more easily without losing the high temperature stability and the W/ P ratio can be decreased to obtain a higher compressive strength. In conclusion, not only in the case of high fusing casting but also of medium fusing casting, this new investment material showed numerous superior characteristics and was tested for practical use.