In the in-hospitalization health examination section of one of the Tokyo metropolitan hospitals, 356 adult males, who showed normal results were studied, divided into two groups, the alcohol drinking group and non-drinking group, by occupation, physique, age, family history, hemoglobin content, white and red blood cell count, total serum cholesterol, fasting blood sugar level, Kunkel value, value of GPT, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The following results were obtained: 1) Systolic and diastolic blood pressure is significantly high in the group which habitually drink alcohol. 2) Other examinations such as diet habit, family history of cerebral hemorrhage show that those in the group drinking alcohol and with high salt intake, family history of apoplexy and overweight have a significantly high blood pressure. 3) Comparing the blood pressure of the examinees who had health examinations two times (there being 2 to 11-year time interval between the first and second examination), a rise in the blood pressure is shown in the group which has four possible causes of hypertension, that is high salt intake, drinking alcohol habitually, overweight and family history of cerebral hemorrhage. The same tendency is found in the group which has three of the four items (alcohol drinking, high salt intake and family history, or alcohol drinking, high salt intake and ove1·weigh t), and in the group having two items (alcohol drinking habit and high salt intake). Therefore, it is very important to give careful directions to those who habitually drink alcohol, high salt intake, overweight and family history of cerebral hemorrhage, and in whom a rise of blood pressure in the future can be anticipated. This will help control the hypertension and show the way of making good use of the results of health examination.
In order to gain more comparative information on the proprioceptors related to the human jaw movement the muscle spindle distribution was investigated in the masticatory muscles of the squirrel monkey from the phylogenetic viewpoint of man through the primates. The present histological investigation showed that the muscle spindles, 270 in number, were distributed within a restricted area of the masticatory muscles on one side. Of these, 160 muscle spindles were concentrated in the inner lowermost layer of the horizontal (78 spindles) and vertical (82 spindles) portions of the temporalis muscle. The medial pterygoid muscle contained 57 muscle spindles. The masseter muscle contained muscle spindles, 47 in number, 24 spindles in the superficial portion and 23 spindles in the profundus. The zygomatico-mandibular muscle contained 6 spindles. The lateral pterygoid muscle was devoid of spindles.
Heterotopically calcified tissues produced by subcutaneous injection of lead acetate in the rats were studied. The total dry weight and total minerals in the calcified tissues showed a significant increase until 32 days after injection of lead acetate. On the other hand, changes in the Ca/ P, Ca/ash, and P/ash ratios in the calcified tissues can be classified into two stages, and the amount of injected lead decreased until 32 days after the injection. The leakage of Evans Blue was observed at the site of lead acetate injection for 2 days and the fluorescence of rhodamine was not seen in the calcified tissues. These phenomena suggested that mast cells and mediators of delayed hypersensitivity reactions played some role in the supply of calcium and phosphate from circulating blood and that acidic mucopolysaccharides as a main constituent of matrix of calcified tissue seemed not to be produced during the development of the heterotopic calcification induced by lead acetate. Finally, the possible mechanisms of the heterotopic calcification are discussed.
Toxicological effect of salicylate on growing bone was examined and the following results were obtained. (1) The longitudinal growth of rat tibia was inhibited and deformation of the proximal metaphyseal region was noted by radiographic examination. The deformation of bone was proportional to the injected dose of sodium salicylate. (2) A number of trabeculae were found in the metaphyseal region by microradiographic examination, and Alcian Blue staining technique also showed that many cartilaginous mat1ix were remained in the metaphyseal region. (3) In the experimental group receiving subcutaneous injection of the salicylate in a dose of 400 mg/kg every other day for 30 days, serum calcium and phosphorus levels were not significantly different from those of controls. (4) Serum 11-hydroxycorticosteroids decreased significantly in the salicylate-treated rats receiving 15 (p<0.05) and 20 (p <0.01) successive subcutaneous injections of the salicylate in a dose of 400 mg/ kg. This finding suggested that the salicylate-induced changes were rather direct action of salicylate than the stimulation of the hypothalamico-adenohypophyseal-adrenocortical system by salicylate. (5) Sodium salicylate-induced histological changes in the rat tibia were reversible. When successive injections of the salicylate were stopped the abnormal histologic appearances were restored rather rapidly to normal. A possible mechanism of these changes was also discussed.