A joint dental epidemiological survey was carried out in 1981 in the ancient city of Ile-Ife and its environs in the Federal Republic of Nigeria. The survey was made with the University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Oyo State, Nigeria, as the base. The occurrence of caries in 898 Nigerian school children of 509 urban and 389 rural children was compared with the occurrence of caries in the Japanese children. The results showed that the incidence of caries in the Nigerian school children was much lower than that of their Japanese counterpart. However, it is projected that with the increase in the consumption of sweet drinks and food in Nigeria, if superimposed on the existing poor oral hygiene, the incidence of caries will increase greatly.
The functional and biochemical changes of rabbit platelets were studied after an exposure to 6 ATA (atmosphere absolute) for 40 min (bottom time). Platelet counts significantly decreased after the decompression. Platelet aggregation induced by collagen was not changed. Although there was no change in the mode volume of platelet s after the decompression, the transient appearance of circulating smaller or fragmented platelets suggested a random over-destruction of platelets. Whole and releasable adenine nucleotide contents of platelets were decreased significantly after the decompression. There were no significant changes in cytoplasmic adenine nucleotide contents. Therefore, in decompression sickness, the circulating platelets behaved similarly to those in acquired storage pool disease. Platelet thrombi were found in the pulmonary arteries. These findings suggest that circulating air-bubbles interact with platelets, causing the platelet release reaction, and these activated platelets participate in the formation of thrombi in experimental decompression sickness.
The serum HDL2-C, HDL3-C, apo AI and apo AII levels were measured in the non-insulindependent diabetic subjects (NIDD) and normal subjects to study the metabolism of HDL in the diabetics.
The serum HDL2-C levels in the insulin-treated group were significantly higher than those in the normal group in which the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), obesity index and age were matched whereas there was no difference between the serum HDL2-C levels in the oral agent-treated group or group treated by diet only and those in the normal group. These suggest that insulin increases the HDL2-C levels and the increase of the HDL2-C levels is not directly related to changes in the serum TC and TG levels, obesity index and age. No significant differences in the serum apo AI and apo AII levels were found between the insulin group and normal group. From these results it is suggested that in the insulin group the cholesterol/apoprotein ratio in the HDL2 is higher than that in the normal group.
The serum apo AI and apo AII levels were significantly lower in the diabetics with an ischemic heart disease (IHD) than those in the diabetics without the IHD. The results show that in the diabetics the apo AI and apo AII play an important role in preventing the development of IHD.
The skin pain threshold was elevated significantly by weak and nonstressful acupuncture stimulation. Although an analgesic effect was obtained by acupuncture stimulation, the β-E, ACTH, GH and TSH levels were not changed. These findings indicate that these hormone levels were not necessarily related to the skin pain threshold elevation.
It is concluded therefore that an analgesic effect was induced without involving the pituitary gland by the weak acupuncture stimulation employed in our study. However, the magnitude of the stimulation may determine whether or not an analgesic effect is mediated by the pituitary gland. The possibility remains that strong acupuncture stimulation produces stress-induced analgesia (SIA). Further detailed research should be attempted.
Metrizamide CT cisternography and Xeon enhanced CT were employed to evaluate the periventricular hypodensity (PVH). CT cisternography was performed on adult cases with suspected communicating hydrocephalus, of which 43 cases showing ventricular reflux were investigated. In those cases in which significant transition of metrizamide into the area of PVH was followed after the ventricular reflux and stasis, the shunt operation was effective. The PVH disappeared post-operatively. However, in cases with PVH in which the metrizamide penetration did not occur, the PVH did not disappear post-operatively and clinical improvement was not detected.
Xenon-enhanced CT was performed in six cases. Three cases exhibited communicating hydrocephalus, in which the area of PVH was not enhanced by metrizamide with CT cisternography. The other cases demonstrated acute high pressure hydrocephlaus. The PVH in the former cases was neither enhanced by Xenon nor metrizamide, while the latter was enhanced significantly.
Studies suggested that the reversible PVH was the result of an abnormally increased transition of cerebrospinal fluid through the ependymal layer, while the irreversible PVH resulted from the axonal destruction or demyelination of the periventricular white matter.
The insecticidal activity of a new pyrethroid, fenvalerate, and the effects of its synergists were evaluated using the 49-s and 381-s strains from Denmark which are both resistant to pyrethroid. It was found that the effect of fenvalerate was poor on the pyrethroid-resistant strains and little was expected from the addition of its synergists. Rapid development of resistance was observed in the 49-s strain during the selection with permethrin.
The effect of colchicine and lumicolchicine on the secretion of an iron containing pigment vesicle onto the enamel surface in the rat maxillary incisors has been studied histologically and by line scan analysis of the iron with an X-ray microanalyzer. Rats were killed at intervals of 12 and 24 hours and 3, 6 and l0 days after the subcutaneous injection of colchicine or lumicolchicine at a dose of 1.3 mg/kg. At l0 days after the colchicine injection, two pigmentation-free bands were observed on the enamel surface in each pair of incisors. By the line scan analysis of the iron with an X-ray microanalyzer, the pigmentation-free bands corresponded to the decrease of the iron concentration profile. By the histological observation at 12 and 24 hours after the injection, no remarkable changes were observed from the late pigmentation stage to the regression stage. However, at 3 and 6 days after the injection, the pigmentation-free band s appeared on the enamel surface. A large number of pigment vesicles was observed in the ameloblasts and in the papillary cells facing the pigmentation-free bands. These phenomena were not observed in the rats injected with lumicolchicine. The present study suggests that the secretion of an iron-containing pigment vesicle in the ameloblasts onto the enamel surface is mediated by the microtubules.