A new cell line, G5A, was established from a human glioblastoma multiforme of the primary site and maintained for 25 months, subcultivated 36 times. The cloned cells showed morphologically epithelial-like patterns and loss of glial filaments. The cells inoculated in the nude mice produced tumors in 100% of the mice. The plating efficiency of the cell line was 20.9% in a standard culture. The modal chromosome number was 63 with many morphological abnormalities. The generation time was 22.9 hours and the parameters of the cell cycle were clarified by the percent labeled mitosis analysis. No morphological differentiation of the cell line was induced by the chemical differentiation-inducers.
A clinical and epidemiological study on congenital dislocation of the hip (CDH) was attempted with a genetic analysis of this condition, and the following results were obtained.
1.The frequency of CDH in the general population is 0.08% in males and 0.59% in females, the latter being clearly higher.
2.In examining the changes in the frequency of CDH over the years using the data reported in the literature, a statistically significant tendency for the frequency to decrease in more recent years was noted.
3.It was confirmed by the recurrence rate of the subsequent sibling and twin data that CDH is a multifactorial disease, and, in estimating its heritability, in males h2=0.94-1.01 and in females h2=1.38, which are markedly high estimates exceeding the limit of 1. This is perhaps attributable to the small number of patients in this series and to the differences in the characteristics between the data on the frequency of CDH in the general population and those of the present pedigree study. When the corrected value of the frequency in the general population was used in estimating the heritability, in males h2=0.54~0.74 and in females h2=0.68, which are almost identical to the American data.
Biopsy specimens of the sural nerve obtained from 28 middle-aged and elderly diabetics suffering from neuropathy were studied morphometrically. Myelinated nerve fiber density, especially large fibers, was decreased, and the bimodal distribution of myelinated fiber diameter shifted to unimodal distribution containing only a small fiber peak and the mean diameter of myelinated fiber was decreased. An insulin-treated group and a group with severe retinopathy showed a prominent decrease of myelinated fiber density; the severity and duration of diabetes may be a factor in this decrease. Large unmyelinated nerve fibers were also decreased and the mean diameter of unmyelinated fibers was reduced. Three patients with prominent autonomic nervous system symptoms showed a significant reduction of total unmyelinated fibers.
The linear correlation between the square root of the transverse axis cylinder area and the number of myelin lamellae was obscured, and the plots were towards two directions, axonal atrophy and remyelination in diabetes. The latter process tended to be dominant in the middle-aged patients, but the importance of these two processes was reversed with age.
To discuss the morphological changes of the sural nerve in diabetic neuropathy, the influence of aging as well as the duration, severity and clinical symptoms should be considered.