Since vascular disease is always progressive and a perfect vascular prosthesis has yet to be developed, postoperative complications are almost inevitable. In this paper, case histories of those who had to have a second operation or, in other words, re-operated patients, have been examined to ascertain the current problems in vascular surgery.
Of 176 vascular reconstructive operations performed between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 1986, 29 re-operations were performed on 19 patients (mean age: 64 years; 15: male). The incidence of late graft failures was 8.4% and, of these, anastomotic aneurysms seemed to be the most serious complication (3.1% incidence rate).
Late graft failures included intimal hyperplasia, occurring within two years in five cases, and four cases of progressing atherosclerosis, which appeared three years after the initial operation.
In all cases of anastomotic aneurysm, arterial wall failure, possibly combined with the changing of implanted grafts, was considered to be related to the false aneurysmal formation. Knitted Dacron demonstrated susceptibility to atherosclerotic progression, whereas the major fault of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts was the insufficiency of the anastomotic diameter.
In conclusion, it was revealed that many factors can provoke late graft failure. Improvement of long-term patency seems to be achieved by a more increased understanding of the pathological meaning of these factors, along with the proper application of medical techniques suited to the causes of vascular obstruction.
To investigate the apparent association of mitral anular calcification (MAC) and electrocardiographic abnormalities, the relation between the location of two-dimensional (2D) echoquantified MAC and conduction distrubances was studied in 140 patients with MAC (MAC group) and 135 age- and sex-matched patients without MAC (control group). The MAC group was subclassified regarding the site and severity of calcium in the mitral anulus. The site of MAC was defined as Type I of MAC near the conduction system and Type II of MAC away from the conduction system. The severity of MAC was graded on 2D echocardiography as mild (localized within 1 segment) and moderate to severe (more than 1 segment).
Seven patients with MAC, and only one control subject, had pacemakers in place. Conduction disturbances were present in 44 (31%) of 140 patients with MAC and in 37 (27%) of the 135 control patients (no significant difference). But there were more conduction disturbances in the patients with Type l MAC (53%) than in those with Type II MAC (26%) (p<0.01). Specifically, complete left bundle branch block and intraventricular conduction delay were more prevalent when MAC was near the conduction system. Intraventricular conduction delay also was more prevalent in the patients with Type I MAC than in the control group (Type I: 12% vs control: 4%; p< 0.05). These data suggest that moderate to severe degrees of MAC located near the conduction system are associated with conduction disturbances, especially intraventricular conduction delay.