The costume of the modern Kendo is dressed in the three-quarter sleeves and Umanori-Hakama. Hakama has usually tl. e length to reach an ankle. Because, by having so, we have the merit that our foot posture and foot action cannot be recognized by the others. On seeing the old pictures concerned with Kendo, there is some types. One is a long Hakama in Shinkage-style. The others are a short lengthened Hakama, and playing figure to taking “Momodachi” to have free legs action. These are different from the style of the modern Kendo. Especially, Momodachi-style could be seen in early of Meiji Era. But, method of taking “Momodachi” had various way and that had definite as life pattern of Bushi. As a part of the history of Kendo, I described the process of Momodachi-style, how to take Momodachi, and their historical resource.
The purpose of the present study is to show how in upper limb action at the Kendo hitting, and how is the effect of muscle and joint around the upper limb. The subjects used in this study were thirty Kendo experts and thirty amateurs. They were tested in four items: 1) morphological measurement,2) strength of upper limb,3) joint flexibility and 4) strike motion analysis by 16 m/m film. The results were as follows: (1) In the “Men” hitting, the experts is improved the efficiency of the strike motion by the rational function between body forward movement and upper limb. Girth, strength and joint flexibility of upper limb on the experts were significantly superior to those of amateurs, but it was found inferior to the backward shoulder elevations. (2) Instead, the amateurs has the inefficiency of the strike motion in the “Men” hitting, and was underdeveloped the upper limb muscle hypertrophies.
We lead the subjects into hypnotic state and by giving verbal suggestion how to learn and let them in calm state and then, inspected how the experiment influenced to the technic during shuting archery. First, the verbal suggestion was given to subjecs to lead them in the state of mental concentration. By means of this suggestion, the subjects became free from all ideas and thought and this brought increment of concentration and more over, the best condition to take EMG. Secondly, we inspected how the suggestion that the subject felt target situated very near just at the point of arrow effected the result. Result Muscle activity decreased and showed steady patern. This means smoothness of muscle activity. It looks like the trained group. The average rate of hits in normal state was 48.8% and hypnotic state 62.4%. This was 14% increment. (P<0.025)
It has been made clear that the performance of muscular strength exertion is influenced by the respiratory phase at the moment of starting the exertion. The relation between control of breathing phases and timing of punching in Karate was experimentally studied. It was revealed that reaction time was the shortest and punching strength was the largest when the subject started his action around the end of the inspiratory phase and finished it before or at the beginning of the expiratory phase. When the punching was started around the beginning of the expiratory phase, the subject tended to produce a W-shaped respiratory curve yielding lag of timing of the moment. These results may be relevant of the problem of unguarded moment in fighting with each other.
We tried to make rough surveys on the real situations and the organizations of Sumo (Japanese wrestling) and other sport events in Amami island districts. Consequently we found that Sumo is held with no relation to Taikyo (the Society for Physical Culture) or the Educational Board in this district. According to our findings Sumo is developed from the divine event and brought up on the peculiar soils. It is also held under the present political and social influences. Under such a peculiar background, Sumo events are often carried on among other sports, under the sponsorship of the Society for Physical Culture or the Inter-High School Athletic Association, which naturally gains good results at various tournaments and which draws our attention to it. The organization of other sports except for Sumo is arranged by the Educational Board. The system of organization is similar to that of urban district, but in reality it was organized by the officials concerned and that it is arranged by the form of events. Therefore, the spontaneous activities by the Sport Associations seem to be in active owing mainly to the lack of the positive participation of the young or middle aged men.