Throughout the ancient and middle ages, the Japanese Archery had been practiced mainly as a necessary tool for hunting and fighting and the components of the shooting methods were as follow: 1) ASHIBUMI 5) UCHIOKOSHI 2) YUGAMAE 6) KAI 3) DOZUKURI 7) HANARE 4) HIKITORI As the bows and arrows had lost thier effectiveness as weapons due to the introduction and development of the firearms in Edo era, the Japanese Archery was practiced only as the means of mental and physical training of Bushiclass. Due to this transition, the components of shooting methods had to undergo the following changes: 1) ASHIBUMI 5) HIKITORI 2) DOZUKURI 6) KAI 3) YUGAMAE 7) HANARE 4) UCHIOKOSHI In the modern era, (Showa era), the components had been increased to 8 sections by addings “ZANSHIN”to the above-mentioned 7 sections. This method of 8 sections have been known as “SHAHO-HASSETSU” at the present time. Hence, when studying the Japanese Shooting Methods historically, it is necessary to understand that the methods had gone through various changes with the ages.
This reseach was to test how muscle groups work during basic practice by the use of EMG. Karate has many basic techniques but we chose standing posture and punching among them. We also tested the relation between breathing with standing posture and with punching. The subjects were a yudansha of 2nd dan grade and one beginner. The postures chosen to be tested were NAIHANCHIDACHI and SHIKODACHI. In NAIHANCHIDACHI muscles of the lower leg (musculi membri inferioris) and in SHIKODACHI extensors of the lower extremity were found to be moved in action. It was noticed that in the case of the former, the gluteus maximus acted as an extensor and in the case of the latter the rectus abdominis acted as a flexor. Concerning the method of punching, JUNZUKI and GYAKUZUKI were chosen. In the postures of JUNZUKI and GYAKUZUKI of the expert (YUDANSHA), only the biceps brachii were employed. It was noticed that before the action of TSUKI, the biceps brachii worked momentarily to gather momentum, and after that working of muscles which fixed joints of the upper extremities simultaneously was noticed. In the posture known as NOKOSHI, after the full extention of the punch (TSUKI), the trapezius and the deltoideus, which support the brachii, were found to be operating. Halfway through the movement we could see that the biceps brachii was working and the movement of the deltoideus disappeared. It suggested that one of the skills was to diminish muscular tension and it became clear that the beginner, did not have such a skill sufficiently, especially in the posture of NOKOSHI. Furthermore, in the study of the way of punching we examined the method of pulling back the hand immediately at and after the climax of the punch, a style which has come about due to the nature of matches. We made them perform in two ways. One was from the first method and second was by jumping in from an OKURIASHI movement. In both cases the movement of the muscles in KAMAE, TSUKIDASHI and KIME was the same as each other but it was noticed that muscle tension quickly becomes lax after reaching KIME of TSUKI. This is due to the pulling back movement. This was especially noticeable with the beginner. Concerning breathing and movement at the time of punching. The subject began the movement at the end of inhalation and after holding the breath to reach TSUKI at the beginning of exhalation. The time of the change of breathing and the dissappearance of the muscular discharge often coincided, it is suggested that this skill of decrease of power can be learned by paying attention to breathing.
The aim of the present study is to observe the characteristics of cardio-respiratory functions in physical fitness of the 18 students (78kg class,71kg class and 65kg class)of Judo club in University. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The mean times of 1500m run was 368 seconds in the 78kg class,355 seconds in the 71kg class and 350 seconds in the 65 kg class. 2. The mean vital capacity was 4553cc in the 78kg class,4350cc in the 71kg class, and 3846cc in the 65kg class. 3. The mean maximum oxygen uptake was 3.67 1/min. in the 78kg class,3.41 1/min. in the 71kg class and 3.32 1/min. in the 65kg class. 4. The mean maximum oxygen uptake per body weight was 48.6ml/kg min. in the 78kg class,49.4 ml/kg min. in the 71kg class and 52.9 ml/kg min. in the 65kg class. 5. The mean oxygen pulse, when the maximum oxygen uptake was appeared, was 19.4 ml/beat in the 78kg class,17.8ml/beat in the 71kg class and 17.2ml/beat in the 65kg class. 6. The correlation were observed between body weight and vital capacity (r=0.642), maximum oxygen uptake per body weight (r=0.648) and oxygen pulse (r=0.622), at 1 percent level, and between body weight all-out time (r=0.521), maximum oxygen uptake (r=0.557) and standing height (r=0.546) at 5 percent level statistically. 7. The correlation were observed between 1500m running time and all-out time (r=0.799), maximum oxygen uptake and vital capacity (r=0.857) at 0.1 percent level statistically. 8. The cardio-respiratory functions of students in University Judo club were inferior to the excellent Judoists. 9. The following is desirous to be done as the results of this study: The more organized and systematized program in trainings, which enables Judo club students to develop the standard of the cardio-respiratory functions, should be prepared in order to get optimum performance among competitions.