The orign of martial art of Japan (Hereafter Budo) in our time is often derived from the middle age like other cultures characterizing Japan. In pre-modern time, Budo had been devided into some schools and, in modern time, changed into modern forms through conflict between tradition and modernization. In order to understand a cultural phenomenon happend along with social changes (especially in Meiji era) we should study not only how Budo changed in quality, but how widely was it spread out. This study deals with the problems of spread and popularization of Budo in Ibaraki prefecture. The author was analyzed “Nippon Bujutsu Meikaden” that was published at Mito-city in the thirth-five year of Meiji era (1) to clarify distribution and special feature of Bujutsu (military arts) school. (2) to clarify conditioning for organized process of Ibaraki branch in the Great Japan Budo Association. In consequence, the names of Bujutsuka (expert of Budo) has recorded 1,753 persons in this book, and the items of an account were as follows: Kendoist 820, Kyudoist 131, Judoist 92 and others 32 persons. In Meiji era, the Kendo become more popular in Ibaraki-Ken than the other Budo. The populations of Kendoist and Judoist had many numbers in twenty age, but Kyudoist showed at a peak in forty age. The system of organization was similar to that of Nagoya edition in the preceding report. In the present time, Ibaraki-Ken hold a high position among the Kendo-loving prefecture.
Baseball and soccer are more popular in Shizuoka than other sports. We can not think, however, that Oya district in Shizuoka City is also an environment suitable for fixating Kendo as a main sports of a junior sports club, though the club planted its root successfully there. This paper attempted to investigate the structure and function of the club, and make its fixating process clearer in terms of a sociological analysis. Results 1. Parents have a strong desire for Kendo and want their children to become patient and courteous by exercising it. 2. The club has an excellent coach and his assistant as well as a nice training place. 3. The club is carried out successfully by mutual cooperation among parents. 4. Much attention is paid to the safe management of the club. 5. There is mutual understanding and contact between parents and children.
The purpose of this study is to make clear whether or not judo exercise in childhood has an effect on the development of coordination. The results were as follows: 1) For pupils above the sixth grade, both the average height and average weight of the judo group were superior to the national norm and to the average of the control group, especially in the case of secondary-school boy judo-players. The R-Index of the judo group was considerably greater than that of the other group in all grades. 2) This study shows that judo exercise during the elementary school period has a considerable effect on the develoment of coordination, especially on the dynamic balance ability. This can be regarded as effect of judo exercise during this period upon the muscle sense, the function of labyrinth, and so on. 3) For the secondary school period, the present study did not reveal any significant differences between the judo group and the control group in all balance tests: That is, judo exercise does not seem to have served to develop any coordination. 4) Making a comparison between the judo group in the elementary school and those at secondary school, we conclude that there was no significant difference in all balance tests. However, the static balance ability increased with age up to secondary school age and judo-players in the elementary school showed a tendency to develop superior dynamic balance ability. 5) A comparison of the careers of various judo-players showed that there was no tendency for coordination to improve with length of career. 6) A comparison of different R-Index judo-players showed that there was no tendency for the static balance ability to deteriorate with increasing R-Index.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the standing posture of the Judomen in comparison with the Kendomen and non-athletes. The investigation of standing posture was made by taking photographs of lateral aspect applying the conformateur (Fig.2) and measurement of several angles such as shown in Fig.1 concerning the curves of the vertebral column. And also, we studied on the E. G. G. (Electro Gravitio Gram) by the gravianalyzer and the relationship between perpendicular line of tragions and C. G. line. Measurements were made in case of three kinds of standing posture, viz., usual relax posture, strained good posture and military posture. The subjects for this study were thirty Judomen, thirty four Kendomen and twelve non-athletes, students of Tsukuba Uuiversity, aged 18-25 years. The results were as follows: 1) Of the vertebral angles of the Judomen, the angle A (inclination of cervical lumbar line) took a positive value, but in the case of Kendomen took a negative value. 2) The C. G. line of right attitude in the Judomen took a left side position from sagittal plane while it took a little right side position in the left attitude. 3) The duplication of two lines (tragions perpendicular line and C. G. line) was not appeared in the Judomen. 4) The Shizentai (basic standing posture in Judo) showed more stable posture than the other standing postures.
The purpose of this study is to observe how the blood pressure of the middle and old aged is influenced by Kendo matches. On the occasions of the anual All Japan Kendo Matches in Kyoto, which Kendomen of 6th grade Or over attended, the blood pressure levels were examined on 224subjects before playing, and also On 119 of them after playing. The ages varied from 35 to 86. The population Was devided into several age groups. The average blood pressure level of each group before playing showed no remarkable difference from that of general Japanese males of corresponding age groups while the standard deviation being apparently smaller than those of general people. This suggests that most of the population were with normal level of blood pressure, only a few with abnormally high level. After playing systolic pressure levels were elevated. This tendency was more evident among those who had normal blood pressure than those who had higher blood pressure, among younger ones than older ones. As for the diastolic blood pressure, no significant changes were observed after playing among normoterisives, hypertensives, or in every age group.