Since the modern school education had started in 1872 (the fifth year of Meiji Era), there was a movement among bujutsuka martial artists to make bujutsu martial arts as material for school physical education. But medical and physiological view of physical education was dominant among the officials of the Ministry of Education. They were doubtful about bujutsu martial arts' pre-modern teaching and learning system and considered bujutsu martial arts as extra-curricular activity. Then there appeared some bujutsuka martial artists who, not by confrontation but by compromise with the Ministry of Education, tried to find the solution. That was what we call ‘bujutsu-taiso-ho method’ in which teachers teach bujutsu martial arts to a group of students at one time. More than twenty books on this ‘bujutsu-taiso-ho method’ were published in twenty years since 1897(the thirtieth year of Meiji Era) and this method was practiced on an experimental basis throughout this country. Among them the method that Ozawa Unosuke tried was the most influential, especially to naginata martial arts education for girls. This method was effective to teach bujutsu martial arts to the beginners, and became very popular.
The Institute were founded in 1923, while the Entry of Gekken and Judo (hereinafter Budo) were institutionalized into the Physical School Education Carricula in 1911. Thereby 318 volumes of the KYOIKU JIRON, A. D.1905-13, were investigated into arguments about the Institute and the School Budo. The results were as follows. 1) Though the Budo was highly valued as the Subject Matter of School Physical Education, it must have been reformed after a careful research by the members of the Institute who have been earnestly expecting its foundation in the near future. 2) The Tokyo Higher Normal School, therefore, had to act for the Institute. 3) On the otherhand, earnest arguments on the establishment of the Institute was repeated whensover the matter of the School Budo was keenly discussed. 4) Including the physiological examination of the Budo, the research services of the Institute were confidently expected to be done internationally as well as nationally.
45 universities in Tokyo,1342 members of JUDO club were investigated into their Alma Mater. The results were as follows. 1) Generally the number of JUDO practitioners was in close relationship with the socio-economical level of the prefecture. 2) But Kyushu and Tohoku, in spite of their lower level, showed high ratio in the number of JUDO club members at high school and also in Kyushu there are many famous JUDO clubs. 3) Many JUDO students from these prefectures have come up to Tokyo to study at the universities in Tokyo. 4) The students from famous high school JUDO clubs make about 7% of the famous university JUDO club members.
The cardiorespiratory response during “Suburi” as a kind of basic movement of Kendo is studied in 11 subjects and compared to leg work. Heart rates of “Joge buri” and “Shomen suburi” more increased than similar level to leg work but “Choyaku shomen suburi” showed to be most heviest work amon “Suburi” and cardiorespiratory response as well as that of leg work. Namely, heart rate during “Choyaku shomen suburi” increased to maximal level to be showed in maximal leg work and oxygen uptake was 93% Toe max in leg work. In rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during “Suburi”, subjects showed more high rating than that of leg work without “Choyaku shomen suburi”. There were linealy relationship between heart rate and RPE. It was showed that RPE during exercise with small muscle group such as arm work is not evaluated to work load to be showed oxygen uptake but is probably a result of a increase in sympathetic tone. From the present findings of trained subjects and other one it is suggested that well trained Kendoists will be able to “Suburi” as well as leg work.
Relative metabolic rate, Vo2 rate (during exercise) to Vo2 max, oxygen debt rate to oxygen requirement in 5 minutes match practice in Kendo were examined. The subjects were two healthy Kendo-men, respectively two from in the thirties to seventies and one in the eighties. The following results were obtained. 1) The relative metabolic rate of subjects was mean 9.4±2.2. Especially the two in their thirties showed the large rate 12.5-13.6. 2) The Vo2 rate during exercise to Vo2 max was mean 76.7±9.0%. 3) The oxygen debt rate to the oxygen requirement was mean 30.3±7.2%.4) The higher intensity was shown in the match practices with higher rank partners than with lower rank partners.
For the purpose of disclosing the characteristics of motion structure on throwing techniques, observation were made by electromyographic and cinematographic studies. Electromyograms were recorded from muscle groups of the upper arm using the standard surface electrodes. Respiration curve was measured with a thermister inserted into nasal cuvity. Electromyograms, respiration curve and motion pictures were taken simultaneously. Motion pictures were recorded with a Milliken intermittent high-speed camera. The running speed of.16 mm long recording film was 100 frames per-second and in order to raise the accuracy of recording, X-tal timing pulse generator was used as shown in Fig.1. The subjects were two Judo instructors (V-DAN holder), fourteen Judo experts (III to V-DAN holder)and eighteen high-school students (six months experience). The subjects were told to perform a technique in a way so that they resembled as much as possible the actual performance during a tournament. The results obtaines are as follows. 1) The forms of throwing technique were generally divided into three phases, those were preparatory phase, attack phase and following phase. 2) During the preparatory phase, it was found that the performer executed a counter motion. At the attack phase, all the upper arm muscles of the perfomer contracted powerfully and this phase also corresponded to his middle stage of the inspiration. During the following phase, M. flexor carpi radialis, M. extensor carpi radialis and M. biceps brachii went into action in order to the performer supported the opponent in his hands. 3) The action times of those three phases were approximately 0.25-0.68 seconds,0.35-0.69 seconds and 0.26-0.62 seconds, in the trained subjects, and 0.27-1.08 seconds,0.25-0.78 seconds and 0.31-0.69 seconds in the untrained subjects. 4) The total time of those three phases in each technique were obtained O-UCHI-GARI (1.21 sec. ), followed by SEOI-NAGE (1.38 sec. ) and O-SOTO-GARI (1.41 sec. ) in the trained subjects. The longest total time was obtained O-GOSHI (102 sec. ) in the untrained subjects.
In order to clarify a level of an energy expenditure in Kendo exercise, heart rate and oxygen intake of experienced Kendo players (four males) were measured by using a bicycle ergometer. A regression equation between the heart rate and %Vo2max was formulated. Thereafter, heart rates of the subjects were recorded on the spot of the practical exercise of Kendo, and %Vo2max were estimated from the equation. The results were summarized as follows: 1) There was a significant correlation between heart rate and oxygen intake. The 50%Vo2max and 70%Vo2max were corresponded to 141.6 beats/min. and 166.8 beats/min., respectively. 2) Mean values of the Vo2max and Vo2max per weight were 3.88±0.3 l/min. and 64.08±10.57ml/kg/min. and HRmax was 200.7 beats/min. 3) The heart rate were 121.0±11.7 beats/min. under warming-up exercise,145.1±14.5 beats/min. under Uchikaeshi and Kihon-geiko,155.8±12.3 beats/min. under Gokaku-gaiko,188.6±7.5 beats/min. under Kakari-geiko which was the highest measured value. These estimated %Vo2max were 33.5,52.7,61.2,85.7% respectively. 4) The heart rate under two minutes intermission between Gokaku-geiko was less than 140 beats/min. in most cases.5) The average of heart rate under the exercise was 147 beats/min. This value was corresponded to 2.061/min. of oxygen intake which was equivalent to 65%Vo2max.