In the present paper such materials as Manyo (the oldest tanka collection), Chokusen- Wakashu (tanka collections compiled by Imperial command), and other history books and stories are reviewed and the frequencies in use of hunting, wars, battle fields, weapons, warriors, and their ways and ideas of life described in those materials are examined with the change of times. In 39650 tankas contained in 23 volumes including Manyo and Chokusen-Wakashues there is no tanka which touches on budo itself, but there are 274 tankas on such military affairs and materials as wars, weapons worriors etc. Frequencies are 164 on bows and arrows,60 on hunting, and 43 on swords. Most of them are used as set epithets or associate words. In 773 tankas in 73 volumes which had been compiled after Kojiki and Nihon-Shoki (ancient chronicles compiled in 8th century) there are 299 tankas on hunting,211 in bows and arrows,51 on hunting, and 4 excellent tankas on archery stakes. No tanka which touches on sechie-zumo (wrestling held at the court banquet) which had been held extensively from ancient times through middle ages and kemari (football introduced from ancient China) which was the required culture for the nobles appears in those volumes. It is worth notice that the section which concerns to Buddhism was prepared in Chokusen- Wakashu after Goshuin- Wakashu (one of the Chokusen- Wakashues), and the view of fate and uncertainty of life began to be composed. It is also worthy to note that this philosophy of Buddhism especially zen Buddhism which has spread in samurai society with the beginning of Kamakura era (1192), was related to such samurai's view of fate as shisei-ichijo (death is equivalent to life) and fujaku-shinmyo (disregard of life). These thoughts had developed afterwards into loyalty to a country and a lord. It was the transitional period from the feudal age to the Meiji era when such a thought was in full bloom.
Since the inauguration of the modern educational system, bujutsuka military artists out of office demanded that budo military arts be put in the regular curriculums. To this, Ministry of Education and scholars on physical education argued that budo military arts was inappropriate for regular curriculum. They pointed out that budo military arts could be dangerous and that it lacked the unity of instruction program and of teaching method. They admitted, however, that it could be given as an extra curricular activity to male students who were fifteen years of age or older. To overcome the argument of the Education Ministry, bujutsuka military artists tried to establish “unified style to be taught in the regular curriculums” by unifying tens of, hundreds of schools. In other words, they appointed, on July 27,1906 (the 39th year of Meiji Era), “the committees to study unified style”. Jigoro Kano headed the judo committee and Noboru Watanabe, the kendo committee. Each committee reported, the following month, the style called “Dai Nippon Butoku-kai Seiteikata (Japan Society for Military Arts Virtue Style)”. To be more specific, in judo's case, Kodokan school made the original plans of the committee and they gained the full support. Kendo's case was not so easy. The plans of the committee were not accepted. A new 23-member committee was appointed in October,1912 (the 1st year of Taisho Era) and the committee presented the 10 brand new “Dai Nippon Teikoku Kendokata (Imperial Japan Kendo Styles)”. These styles still exist today and are considered to be the bases of kendo.
Change of value orientation about KENDO in the Course of Study for Secondary Schools and its manuals were investigated in Japan from 1913. The results were as follows: (1) The modern Japanese school KENDO was founded in 1911 at the end of the Meiji Era. At the beginning of that time, KENDO was involved in the options program and not involved in the Teaching Handbook. (2) The aims and contents of KENDO in the secondary schools were determined by the Ministry of Education and fully described in the Course of Study in 1936. At that time, the most important aims of KENDO was spiritual training for young people in school and its community. (3) Though KENDO and JUDO have gradually developed, as well as gymnastics and military drill in physical education program, they were regarded as more and more important at that time of the World War I and II. And at last, the spiritual and military training in KENDO, as well as other physical education program had stressed as the greatest of value orientations at that time of the War II. (4) Afer the War II, from 1953, the aims and contents of KENDO in the secondary schools have gradually developed as sport. (5) On the other hand, there seems to be no doubt that KENDO has left some value concerning the spiritual and physical training.
This paper is mainly concerned with a typological analysis of the influence of exercise life upon the physical growth of senior high school students. The author researched students who belonged to a judo club at a junior high school and at a senior high school for six years. Then I analysed the change of their physical growth in terms of the results of physical measurement, a physical fitness diagnostic test, and a motor ability test for three years at their senior high school days. Results: (1) Physical measurement shows that the members of a judo club are superior to non-exercise groups in breadth and volume growth at each grade of a senior high school. (2) A physical fitness diagnostic test shows that the members of a judo club are superior to non-exercise groups in the static strength such as back strength, grip strength, etc. (3) In teaching senior high school students, it is necessary to examine their physical fitness from the viewpoints of physical form and function, and integrate it into the education system of a senior high school.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of arm and leg power of university sumo wrestlers. The measurements of power were made on arm flexion, leg extension and arms extension by inertia load method. The used load of inertia wheel were 25 kg,100 kg and 400 kg equivalent mass on arm flexion and leg extension. In the case of arms extension, the used load consisted of 36 kg,111 kg and 411 kg equivalent mass added to mass of the pushing box (shown in Fig.1-c). The subjects consisted of six top athletes on sumo wrestler, judoists and throwers, respectively. The results may be summarized as follows: (1) As regards the average power on load 25 kg (the importance is the factor of speed. ) for arm flexion, the mean of sumo wrestlers was significantly inferior to those of judoists and throwers, and in case of load 400 kg (the importance is the factor of force. ), it was significantly superior to the others. In cas of the average force on load 400 kg for arm flexion, the mean of sumo wrestlers was significantly superior to those of judoists and throwers. With regard to the average velocity on load 25 kg for arm flexion, the mean of sumo wrestlers was significantly inferior to those of judoists and throwers. It was found that sumo wrestlers were inferior to judoists and throwers on the speed, and that they were superior to the others on the force. (2) As regards the average power on each load for leg extension, the mean of sumo wrestlers was superior to those of judoists and throwers. In case of the average force on load 400 kg for leg extension, the mean of sumo wrestlers was inferior to that of throwers. In case of the average velocity on each load for leg extension, the mean of sumo wrestlers was superior to those of judoists and throwers. It was found that sumo wrestlers were superior to judoists and throwers on both the speed and force, and that they were more superior on the speed than on the force, if anything. (3) As regards the average power on load 36 kg (the importance is the factor of speed. ) for arms extension, the mean of sumo wrestlers was not so different from that of throwers, and in case of load 411 kg (the importance is the factor of force. ), it was superior to those of judoists and throwers. In case of the average force on each load for arms extension, the mean of sumo wrestlers was superior to those of judoists and throwers. In case of the average velocity on load 36 kg for arms extension, the mean of sumo wrestlers was inferior to those of judoists and throwers. It was found that sumo wrestlers were superior to judoists and throwers on the force.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of hand and foot preference in Judoists and Kendoists. The subjects for this study were fifteen sport clubs,167 male athletes (included 11 Judoists and 19 Kendoists) of the University of Tsukuba, aged 18-23 years. Survey by the questionnaire was made on 25 items and 15 items concerning the laterality of the arm and leg. They were tested in ten morphological and motor skill tests; 1) difference of bi-acromion height,2) weight distribution on left and right foot,3) grip strength,4) arm flexion strength,5) tapping,6) target accuracy test,7) leg strength,8) foot tapping,9) picking up pencil and 10) one foot balance with eyes closed. The results were as follows: (1) The right shoulder of Judoists and Kendoists had a tendency to be on the downward. The overweight tendency to right foot were shown in Kendoists, but a tendency to left foot overweight was observed in Judoists. (2) As for the grip strength, arm flexion strength, tapping and target accuracy test, Judoists showed superiority in the right hand, but Kendoists did not showed significant superiority. (3) In the case of right foot preference, leg strength, foot tapping, picking up pencil and one foot balance with eyes closed showed more superiority in the right foot on Judoists than its on Kendoists. (4) In the case of left foot preference, leg strength showed superiority in the left foot on both groups, but foot tapping showed superiority in the right foot on the other hand. As for the picking up pencil, Judoists showed superiority in the right foot, but Kendoists showed the inversed tendency.