More than 1300 of instructors in Judo and Kendo at Upper Secondary Schools were investigated on their value orientation in lessons, club activities, and others. The results were as follows: (1) About 70% of them were physical education teachers and many of them have engaged to their occupations for about 10 or 20 years. (2) The lesson on both Judo and Kendo were given above 80% of Upper Secondary Schools in Japan and the total of the lesson amounted to 30 or 40 more unit hours through 3 years. (3) In many cases, the contents of lessons were made up of fundamental skills, combat skills, and matches. (4) The objectives of the lessons were to have the pupils improve their mind and body through rational practices. (5) It will be necessary for the improvement of the better lessons to have more lessons for teaching, good facilities, and the instructors. (6) Judo and Kendo in the handling club activities: extra curricular educational activities, were adapted in the 50 to 60% of Upper Secondary Schools and most of them were instructed simultaneously in the mass. And only 30% of high schools held their intramural athletics. (7) On the other hand, less than 30 members belong to the clubs of Judo and Kendo at most, but it is greatly demanded for freshmen with excellent qualities to join the club. (8) It is not doubtful that many of the instructors are much interested in the reinforcement of their club members.
Since the inauguration of the modern educational system, bujutsuka military artistsout of office demanded that bubo military arts be put in the regular curriculums. To this, Ministry of Education and scholars on physical education argued that budo military arts was inappropriate for regular curriculum. They pointed out that budo military arts could be dangerous and that it lacked the unity of instruction program and of teaching method. They admitted, however, that it could be given as an extra curricular activity to male students who were fifteen years of age or older. In order to change the attitude of Ministry of Education, bujutsuka military artists employed the following two strategies: (1) to try to obtain as many people's consent as possible in the Parliament, and, (2) to try to obtain as many teachers' consent as possible by presenting “the teaching method of budo military arts” based on the experimental studies. The present study deals with the latter. There were basically two problems to be solved on the part of bujutsuka military artists out of office so that they could obtain teachers' consent, and eventually budo military arts could be put in the regular curriculums. One is the dangerousness; “atemi (hit the vital point to make one unconscious)” in judo, and “men-dageki (hit the opponent on the forehead)” in kendo were considered to be particularly dangerous. The other is the lack of unity; each school had its own method and program. When Kendo and Judo were adopted in the regular curriculums in the middle schools in 1911 (the 44th year of Meiji Era), the Ministry of Education held a fiveweek lecture meeting at Tokyo Kato Shihan Gakko (Tokyo Higher Normal School)to guarantee the equality and unity of contents to be taught at school. The method was called “Dantai-Kyoju-Ho (a method to teach basic patterns of bujutsu military arts to a class all at once)” to solve the above-mentioned two problems at a time, This method later became popular and influential. The popularity and influence of the method was at its peak during the whole Taisho Era and the first ten years of Showa Era (1912-1935).
Sonkyo is one of the traditional postures in Japan that are executed in the etiquettes of Shinto as well as of Sumo (wrestling) and Kendo etc. But the Sonkyo in Budo (military arts) is very different in kind from the one in Shinto. In the modern schools of Kendo fencers must be sure to assume Sonkyo (a crou ching posture) both before and after the fencing match, while in the old schools etiquette was divided on this point and there were many old schools that did not execute Sonkyo. It was in fact in the late Meiji era that the form was established like this. So far in Kendo fencers have been taught to assume Sonkyo with dignity, but there are now some people who think light of Sonkyo as a mere formality. In this study, I brought out the meaning of Sonkyo, the traditional posture in Japan, and considered the subject of Sonkyo in Kendo from the viewpoint of a history of Japanese Budo manners and customs.
Iai originated in the practical combative techniques known as battd (striking instantly with a sword while rapidly unsheathing it in one stroke) which were born during the ages of civil and martial disorder. These martial techniques, batto, as they yielded to the necessities of the subsequent ages of peace underwent drastic transformations in terms of both the way the techniques were preformed and their ideological forntations, and gradually developed into what is now known as iai. Within the process of this development, in terms of physical technique, the trend toward the practice of the art from a sitting posture occupies a central position. This central position is shared on the mental side with the philosophical reorientation of the art toward one possessing the fundamental nature of being directed toward a defensive response to a sudden and unexpected attack such as what might occurr even in an orderly society. This kind of iai, in both its physical and intellectual characteristics, was well suited to the peaceful social conditions of Tokugawa society. Iai was the model martial art for an age of social order. By developing in this way, undergoing many technical vicissitudes, the adoption of sitting in the formal posture of seiza, the use of the samurai's uchi-gatana (long sword worn through the belt with edge upwards) instead of the soldier's tachi (long sword slung from the belt with edge downward), and assuming the character of a mental discipline practiced without an opponent, iai eventually realized its standard form which has been preserved down to the present time.
The development of Judo From Jujitsu has been influenced by some thoughts in the following ways: (1) The concept of Ju propounded by Leo Tzu and Sanlue represented the “fluidity and adaptalility” characterictic of water. The fluidity and adaptalility concepts have been incorporoted into the “Principle of Ju” (winning by adapting oneself to the opponent's force). Jigoro Kano applied “the principle of Ju” to the service of daily life as well as a technique. (2) The doctrines of Zhuzi teach the virtues of Bushido, which have become part of the principles of Jujitsu. Such Bushido virtues as courtesy, courage, sincerity and patriotism have been adopted as the principles of moral training in Kodokan Judo. (3) The Zen doctrine of maintaining an unperturbed mind during a contest had been incorporated in Jujitsu, but Jigoro Kano didn't quote the Zen as he would introduce Judo into education. (4) When Jigoro Kano was a student at Tokyo University, he learned Western philosophy mostly from Ernest F. Fenollosa. I will consider how the Westerm philosophy bring the influence of Judo thoughts next time.
We investigated the conditions in which we could use the small groups effectively to attain educational objectives of Judo both in technical and attitudinal domain simultaneously in school physical education. Following two variables were examined.1) Reorganization versus fixation of the small group throughout the lessons in one learning unit.2) Degree of the permission for autonomous activities in intra-group interaction under the condition of some learning tasks obviously presented. Subjects were 119 senior high school students. The teaching material of the lessons was the review of Newaza and the inter-group match games. Three times of 50 minutes lessons were the period of this experiment. Results were as follows.1) More progress in technical domain was found in the condition of reorganization. On the other hand, higher attainment of attitudinal objectives was found in the condition of fixation. But when the degree of the permission for autonomous activities in the small group was higher, it was found that more progress in technical domain was possible even in the fixed group condition.2) In the condition of higher degree of permission for autonomous activities in the small group, more progress in technical domain was found. On the other hand, in the condition of lower degree of permission, the attainment of the attitudinal objectives was more progressive. It was supposed that the result of the latter was induced by lack of the subjects' experiences of the group management under such more autonomous learning condition. At the end of the examination, the significance and the orientation of the positive study in school education was discussed.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of the basic Movement of Judo and the Throwing. Technique of Judo top players. We used the force platforms to investigate the mechanics of Kamae, Kuzushi and step-in motion during the Throwing Techniques. .16mm cine camera was corresponded with the records of the force Components of foot. (We used as shown in Fig.1) The subjects for this study were 6 top atheletes on Judo, (including the 3 national team members) 20 to 21 years of age,8 to 12 years of experience and 3 to 4 dan degree. The results may be summarized as follows; (1) In all Kamae, we have the well-balanced force in right and left toward outside direction. Except Kamae of Shizen-hontai and Jigo-hontai, we have the well-balanced force in back and forward. Then the weight of the subject was divided well in right and left. (2) In Kuzushi of the forward direction, we found the large force toward perpendicular direction and the movement of the body in the side and back direction. When Uke was unbalanced, there wasn't almost the force in back and forward direction and the weight of subject added to the foot toward unbalanced side and the posture of the subject was unbalanced. (3) In Throwing Techniques, when the subject stepped in, we found the wellbalanced force in right and left. Then the posture of the subject was kept. At this time, we found the large force in the supporting leg in the perpendicular direction. And, when the subject stepped in, we found the shock in each direction that keep the posture of the subject.