T the promotion of martial arts in Akita Clan. The Akita Clan had no definite Laws concerning martial arts training of their samurai retainers. The promotion of martial arts was not prescribed by Law, and, in practice, it was carried out with the following policies. The Laws played an important part in administrative aspect so that their policies for the martial arts promotion were realized effectively. 1. The Clan Lord officially inspected his samurai retainers in their martial arts practice and gave occasionally prizes and awards to the outstanding samurai retainers for their excellent performances and he also encouraged those who needed more practice. Since the troop of guards armed with shooting guns were directly supervised by the Clan, they were regularly inspected by their Lord. 2. According to the officially announced training schedule by the Clan, the samurai retainers periodically practiced gunmanship. At the end of the Tokugawa Period, the troop of guards were armed with cannons instead of guns. 3. The Clan-School was established for literary and martial development among the retainers. However, there was no martial-arts-training class in their curriculum. The only samurai retainers that held certificates of Confucianism and martial arts were able to apply for the position of martial arts officers. Therefore, the applicants had to practice martial arts besides the literary classes to be qualified. An order was issued by the Clan so that masters of martial arts should use the practice sites which were established in the school. 4. The martial arts masters were financially supported by their Clan so that the level of martial arts in the Clan would be increased.
The aim of this study is to clear the mechanism in throwing technique of Judo, analyzing phenomenal change of turned head position and arm movement, according to 3 Dimensional Chinematography called Direct Linear Transformation Method. The result was following: 1. Trained subject showed both left and right turned head position, and Middle trained and Untrained subjects showed right turned head position mainly in the general change of turned head position in Seoinage, Taiotoshi, and Haraigoshi. 2. Trained subject showed only right turned head position, Middle trained subject showed both left and right turned head position, and Untrained subject showed left turned head position mainly in Ouchigari. 3. Every subject showed notable change of turned head position in Kuzushi and Kake of all techniques. 4. Right arm of Trained subject showed different movement from the movement occured by Tonic Neck Reflex, and it seems to relate to Judo technique. 5. Arm and head of Middle trained subject showed same movement as the movement occured by Tonic Neck Reflex.6. Each subject showed different relation in between turned head position and arm movement.
It is a common knowledge that the motion of the head plays an important role in applying the Judo throwing techniques. It greatly influences the retention of the posture in the process of the applying the techniques, and also affects the making full use of the power which is needed in the throwing. In this study, we regard the motion of the head, the shoulders, and the hip, which affect very much the throwing, as the rotary motion against the median line; and we try to explain in what way the head, the shoulders, and the hip move and how thiw rotary motion affects the motion of the head in the throwing. The following results was obtained. 1) It was observed that in the case of well-trained the body had turned round before the head began to turn at the completion of “Taisabaki” (body turning) and the motion of the head was restrained; but in the case of middle-trained and untrained, the head had turned round before the shoulders at the completion of “Taisabaki” (body turning). 2) In the phase of “Kake” (attack) of well-trained, the head turned round at a time, and a angle difference could be observed between the head, the shoulders and the hip; i. e. the head had turned first, the followed the shoulders, and the hip: and this angle difference between the head and the body was smaller than the case of middletrained and untrained. Therefore we could say that the head, the shoulders, and the hip co-ordinated well in this case. But in the case of middle-trained and untrained the angle difference which was observed at the completion of “Taisabaki” (body turning)continued, and it became even larger than it was at the completion of “Taisabaki”(body turning). So in the case of middle-trained and untrained, it was observed that only the head turned round too much in the throwing. 3) In the case of middle-trained and untrained, it was observed at the phase of “Kake”(attack) that the position of the hip was too high, so therefore the direction of “Hikite”(pulling hand) was not correct, and “Tsurite” (lifting hand) did not work well, so that the motion of the shoulders was restricted. The motion of the shoulders is important to the effective motion of the head. This motion of the shoulders is influenced by the correct position of the hip and the correct direction of “Hikite” (pulling hand)and the correct way of “Tsurite” (lifting hand).
We measured cardiac functions during exercise and recovery in 11 Japanese top Judo athletes by impedance cardiography and the relationships between the cardiac functions and the body weight or heart volume were also investigated. The results as follows: 1. During exercise, heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output increased acutely in the all Judo athletes and the mean values of the max. heart rate (beats/min.), max. stroke volume (ml) and max. cardiac output (1/min.) were 138±22,140±40,18.8±3.7, in the lightweight class,139± 17,146± 17,19.4±2.0 in the middle, light heavyweight class, and 157±14,182±21,28.7±5.3 in the heavyweight class, respectively. 2. In the relative changes of cardiac responses to exercise, there were no significant differences in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output during the three groups. But in the recovery phase, the middle, light heavyweight class and the heavyweight class Judo athletes needed more times to restore the respective rest values than the lightweight class Judo athletes. 3. The body weight correlated positively with max. heart rate (r=0.57, p<0.05), max. stroke volume (r=0.76, p<0.01), and max. cardiac output (r=0.89, p<0.001), respectively.4. Similarly, good correlation (r=0.77, p<0.01) was observed between heart volume and max. stroke volume. The results of this study demonstrate that cardiac responses during exercise and recovery in the Judo athletes are affected by the body weight.
The exercise intensity in Judo practice was determined in six boys involved 4th to 6th grade in elementary school period. The change in heart rate of all subjects were measured by heart telemeter. For all subjects, the correlation between heart rate ( HR ) and oxygen intake ( VO2 ), HR and relative oxygen intake ( %VO2max ) was determined as they performed bicycle ergometer test. Then the exercise intensity was estimated by the regression equation. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The significant linear relationships ( p < 0,01) were observed between HR and 1.702, HR and %VO2max in all subjects. The mean HR corresponding with 50%and 70% VO2max were 132 beats/min,158 beats/min, respectively. 2) The mean VO2 max and maximal heart rate of the all subjects were 2,34 ± 0,31k /min,56,8 ± 3,82 mk /kg/min and 195 ± 5,74 beats/min, respectively. 3) Peak HR and %HRmax during Judo practice ranged: 148-165 beats/min (75-86%)in Ukemi; 136-167 beats/min (71-84%) in Uchikomi; 134-184 beats/min (70-96%)in Newaza; and 159-193 beats/min (83-96%) in Tachiwaza. 4) The mean HR and %HRmax during Judo practice were: 147 ± 7,38 beats/min (138-157) and 76 ± 3,68 %HRmax (72-82) in Ukemi; 143 ± 9,54 beats/min (128154) and 73 ± 3,24 %HRmax (67-76) in Uchikomi; 141 ± 15,43 beats/min (119-165)and 72 ± 6,70 %HRmax (62-86) in Newaza; and 171 ± 13,53 beats/min (145-183)and 87 ± 6,24 %HRmax (76-94) in Tachiwaza. 5) As expressed in terms of the mean %VO2max, the intensity of Judo practice was 62 ± 4,41 %VO2max (55-69%) in Ukemi; 58 ± 6,20%VO2max (51-67%) in Uchikomi; 57 ± 9,40 %VO2max (44-71%) in Newaza; and 80 ± 8,68 %VO2max (64-91%) in Tachiwaza. 6) The individual difference during Judo practice was smallest in Ukemi and greatest in Newaza and/or Tachiwaza. The present study did not reveal any significant differences between good Judo-skill and poor Judo-skill group in individual difference. The factors of individual difference mainly seemed to be related to structure (body height and weight) and superior cardiorespiratory function. 7) It seems that the physiological intensity of over 170 beats/min in HR and 70%in VO2 max is necessary to improve cardiorespiratory function in elementary school period. These conditions were satisfied with Tachiwaza. From above, it was found that there was tendency for Tachiwaza to have served to improve cardiorespiratory function.