1. Original Budo is the discipline for the samurai (warrior) to give devoted service and the charactor of Budo was established in Tokugawa era. 2. After the Meiji Restoration the samurai caste which was the basis of Budo ceased to exist, and Japan as a modern state learned much from western civilization. And among those introduced things to Japan, physical education or sports under the school system are not native to Japan as for the doctorine, and they are different type compared with the original Budo. Therefore, Budo was institutionalized into the physical school education carricula at the end of the Meiji Era. 3. During the Second World War, Budo was very much encouraged for prosecution of the war and it was an independent subject apart from physical exercises. But, after the war Budo was prohibited for a while, and later it was restored in school curricula as a democratic sport. But the nature of Original Budo will not be changed, however the situation. changes entirely as stated above. 4. The present school Budo as physical education or sports should be encouraged still more. It was derived from Orignal Budo in old days and reconstituted in new type. So, it is necessary to keep in mind the spirit and the tradition of Original Budo and to maintain and carry them on.
Though the International Judo Federation established the rule called “Koka”, the All Japan Judo Federation decided not to adopt it. In order to understand this conflict, we have to consider the process how the martial arts - their thought, spirit, and techniques - have been built up in Japan, in relation to modern sports. In the past, under special circumstances of Japan, the ideal of bushido or samurai spirit sprang from the martial arts, and they were bound up with those in authority. Even today, technically speaking, we have adopted all of the jujutsu-waza in modern Judo, even though we make most of nage-waza. Psychologically speaking, in the age of jujutsu, the style of “rei”, or formal greeting to one's opponent, was not more than a supplement, as it were. In our modern democratic times, this concept of “rei” has been changed into the one which stands for respect co-operation and so forth; moreover, “Kata”, or stylized performances, have been introduced. “Kata” possess the sense of the s pirit of rei, and are performed neither for the purpose of victory nor defeat. In other words, the quality of Judo is found in Japanese traditional culture, possessing strong ties with politics and society. In Judo we have pursued, both mentally and physically, morality, religion, the sense of art (that is, technique) and so forth. A rule is not always unchangeable, but rather it is to be modified bit by bit when necessary. In Judo too, there has been a tendency to decide the winner by points, although in the past it has been decided only “Ippon”. Thus we are now at a grave turning point. Should we acept the modification of rules only on condition that the essential quality of Judo is not changed? Or should we go on modifying the rules without considering the real quality of Judo, regarding Judo as just an ordinary competition sport?
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the characteristics of “Ki” (Energy), considered as being the most important concept in traditional theories on martial arts. From his readings and classification and arrangement of the “Ki” terms appearing in the typical works of swordsmen during the Edo era (AD 1600-1867), the author tries to clarify the characteristics of “Ki” in the Martial Arts. The results of this paper may be summarized as follows: 1) Swordsmen grasped the matter in relation to phenomenon and essence and not in relation to cause and effect. 2) They recognized that “Ki” controls not only their mind and body but also the whole creation. 3) They defined the concept of “Ki” as an abstract idea, functional ontological concept and the real existence which appeared in their mind and body. 4) They could have the intuition of the essence of “Ki” by training their body and mind in Martial Arts, especially in the situation where they were facing each other holding their Katana. 5) They solved the “mind-body” problem by means of the transformation of themselves through the mastering of “Ki”.
245 of instructors in KARATE-DO at Senior High Schools were investigated by questionnaire on their value orientation through their training programs. The results were as follows: (1) Most of instructors in KARATE-DO clubs are not physical education teachers. (2) About 30% of Senior High Schools in sample have their KARATE-DO course in their physical education classes and so on. (3) According to our observation on the value orientation of training programs, high correlations among the appreciation of “the theory”, its application, and will for its improvement are recognized, and then the improvement of appreciation is followed by the improvement of instruction. (4) These inclinations above mentioned are clearly observed in the upper-levelled KARATEDO clubs rather than the lower-levelled ones. (5) It was recognized that training programs of the higher-levelled KARATE-DO clubs, whose instructors have good experiences in training and teaching of KARATE-DO, have approving trends in all aspects of aims, objectives, contents and so on.
The purpose of this study is to measure a duration required for defense and furthermore, to investigate the factors which govern an achievement of defense in Kendo. Eleven University Kendo players were employed as subjects. Action potential from biceps brachii and triceps brachii of the right arm and a strain of shinai generated at strike were recorded. Time elapsed from initiation of action potential up to the strain of shinai is regarded as duration for defense. There is no difference in the duration required for defense due to the level of skill. Therefore it is supposed that there are more important factors than duration of defense action as to the achievement of defense in Kendo.