“Ma” is a concept which covers all regions of traditional culture of Japan, and is one of the important concepts called “riai”, which is relevant to all the techniques of kendo; that is, the techniques which are made in the interactions with the opponent, are all considered to be related with “ma”. “ Ma” in kendo is generally explained as a distance to the opponent and a timing of hitting or thrusting. The definition of this concept is, however, given quite intuitively and vaguely, and furthermore, this concept is interpreted in many ways and therefore is a “riai” which is difficult to understand readily. Thus, this paper is intended to examine mainly the concepts of “ma” which are found in the books of kenjutsu in the Kinsei period, and to clarify the inherent significance, characteristics, essentials, and so forth. Moreover, we try to examine the change of the understanding of “ma”in relation to the change of techniques by comparing the notions of “ma” which are found in the books of kendo of today with those of earlier periods.
This paper is a comparative study of image factors that university athletes have towards a Judo trainee. We asked a total of 1,543 athletes,215 in Judo clubs and 1,328 in other sports clubs in University A, University D, University S, and University T to respond to the questionnaire formulated by the Kodokan Judo Scientific Research Center. Results of the research obtained were as follows: 1. A total of the contribution degrees of the first three image factors which Judo club members have towards a Judo trainee was 35.33%, which was much higher than that of other sports club members. 2. In the following five categories i. e. vitality, physical conditions, emotion and feeling, sociality, and volition, a similarity, to some degree, was observed between the images of a Judo trainee possessed by the Judo club members and those possessed by other sports club members. 3. Since the effective instruction of Judo has been widely provided in universities, students of these five universities rank Judo as one of the premier athletic sports. 4. The results mentioned above have proved that Judo will be able to contribute to physical or mental development of university students and to the formation of their personality.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the left foot outward angle in Chudan-no-kamae on the Shomen-uchi. A force platform was used together with 16 mm cine camera to investigate synchronously the mechanics of take-off motion during the Shornen-uchi in Kendo. The records of the force components of foot pressure on the floor of the male Kendo players were obtained at the take-off motion during Shomen-uchi. Subsequently, the records were taken with the body movements shown in 16 mm film. The subjects for this study were 9 male students of the Tsukuba University,20 to 23 years of age,12 to 15 years of experience and 3 to 4 dan degree. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The leftward and the backward components of foot force increase with the change of the left foot angle (from 0° to 50°). The tendency above mentioned is clearly observed over 30° and especially at 50°. 2. The larger the left foot angle at Chudan-no-kamae is, the more the maximum magnitude of leftward force (Fx) increases. On the contrary, both of the backward (Fy) and vertical (Fz) forces during take-off motion at Shomen-uchi decrease. 3. A larger and sharper peak in the force curve of the backward and vertical components is observed at the angle under 20° and especially usual foot position. 4. The angle of forward inclination of body (∠f) decreases gradually with the increase of the left foot angle. The angle of trunk (∠a) decreases as the result of an inadequate left foot action, which causes delay of the posture recovering after striking motion.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics and relationship between somatotype and standing posture in Judoists and Kendoists. In this study the 245 male athletes from 15 sports events at the University of Tsukuba were classified as to their body type by the Heath Carter somatotype method. And measurement was taken of the spine curvatures, the difference of bi-acromion height, the weight distribution between right and left foot and the location of center of gravity in anterior posterior axis of foot. The results were as follows: 1. The characteristics in somatotype of Judoists showed large mesomorphic and endomorphic components. The somatotype of Kendoists showed resemblance to that of Soccer and Tennis player. 2. The intensified dorsal curvature was one of the characteristics in Judoists' posture. Kendoists had a tendency to be inclined backward in head and neck position. 3. Judoists who showed endomorphic mesomorph type had a tendency to be inclined backward in their upper bodies. And Kendoists who showed ectomorphic mesomorph type had a tendency to shift their weight forward.
We measured physical characteristics, function and cardiac silhouette before and after 45 days bed rest in the Judo world champion “Yasuhiro Yamashita”. The results before and after bed rest for 45 days were as follows: 1. Body weight increased 4.0 kg (+3%), but lean body mass decreased 5.1 kg (-6%). 2. Although heart rate at rest increased 11%, blood pressure did not show significant differences. 3. Cardiac silhouette decreased in the range between 7 and 15% and especially heart volume decreased from 1354.2 ml to 982.4 ml (-28%).