The technical system of martial arts in Japan had been established in the 16 th and 17 th centuries and various schools of them had been founded. In the area of archery, the transmission system of technical method in mounted and ceremonial archery, which were characterized as the chivalrous accomplishments, had been established in the 15 th century. On the other hand, foot soldier archery (Hosha), which aimed at the real battle, was developed toward the same direction as those of another martial arts. In the Edo period, the publishers, which had become one of the established business, printed, published, and made public the texts of martial arts which had hitherto been secret. Archery, strategy, and gunnery were the main categories of martial arts in terms of the number of publishing. Many works on strategy and gunnery had been published after the 19 th century, assumedly because of the influence of advanced military techniques introduced by the European countries. As for the works concerned with archery; 1. The arrival of firearms in the 16 th century and the accompanied changes in the warfare methods made decrease the utility of the bow. Thereafter, archery was emphasized with its traditional and ceremonial aspects. 2. Archery started to be recognized as the chivalrous accomplishments being a part of general education of a Bushi. 3. Competitive aspect of archery (e. g. Toshiya) raised the interest among the vast majority. These factors might have facilitated the publication of texts dealing with archery.
In this study, the degrees in mastery of the throwing techniques in Judo were examined by the changes in partial foot pressure during the throwing motion. The subjects were grouped into following three; A) Judoists with favorite of Seoi-nage B) Judoists without favorite of Seoi-nage C) Beginners The maximum value of partial foot pressure, its timing, duration, and impulse in Seoi-nage were measured. In order to measure the above items, the force sensor made of carbon fibers was attached to the head of 1 st and 5 th metatarsal, and calcaneum of both feet. Following findings were obtained. 1. Regarding to the Group A and B, the changes in pressure, timing, and maximum value of pressure were consistent. Both groups showed their maximum values of partial foot pressure in the stage of throwing motion. On the other hand, the Group C was indicated to have the large variability in the maximum value of partial foot pressure. 2. The functional foot was indicated to produce high pressure (especially in the heads of 1 st and 5 th metatarsal) during “Fumikomi” in all three groups. The supporting foot was indicated to show a great change in pressure in process of “Kake” to “Nage”in three groups. The records of 5 th metatarsal head indicated doublepeaked pressure and that of calcaneum did mountain-shaped pressure. 3. The maximum values of partial foot pressure and of impulse per unit body weight were found to be greater in the supporting foot than in the functional foot. The Group A showed the greatest value of pressure by the head of 5 th metatarsal, and that of the head of 1 st metatarsal followed. The supporting foot in the Group A was indicated to generate the greatest pressure in calcaneum. Regarding to the Group B, both supporting and functional feet were found to show the greatest value of pressure in the head of 1 st metatarsal and then the head of 5 th metatarsal. Regarding to the Group C, both supporting and functional feet showed the greatest value of pressure in the head of 1 st metatarsal and a great value of impulse in the calcaneum. 4. The Group A showed relatively low values of coefficient of variation in maximum pressure and impulse except for the heads of 5 th metatarsal of both feet. The Group B was found to have less variation (c. v. ) than the Group C did.
A nation-wide survey on teaching women's Judo was conducted to Judo instructors who were teaching women's Judo in order to find out the current teaching methods and curriculum of women's Judo. Upon comparing the results of the present study with previous studies partaing to teaching men's Judo, the following conclusions were elicited: 1. As far as teaching Judo to women was concerned the teaching methods or curriculums were not completely established but were similar to men's curriculums or slightly modified from them. 2. There were more male Judo instructors than female teaching wemen's Judo. Comparing to the teaching methods of male instructors the ones of female instructors had a tendency to follow the methods of teaching men's Judo. 3. In order to further or progress wemen's Judo in the future it was suggested that the methods of teaching women's Judo and the contents of Judo contests should be modified according to needs and aims of the participants in women's Judo.