The purpose of this study was to clarify the trend of self-esteem in Kendo athletes. It was examined by questionnaire in relation to the effects of experience in significant situation. The subjects were 222 Kendo athletes who took part in All Japan Inter-Collegiate Kendo Championship Tournament in 1983. The results were summarized as follows: (1) Kendo athletes had the higher self-esteem, the better their personal performances in the past had used to be. (2) Kendo athletes were obliged to evaluate their self-esteem in significant matches. Irrelevant to victory or defeat, those who had higher self-esteem before the matches somehow lowered their self-esteem after the matches, while those who had lower self-esteem somehow enhanced it.
Summary In order to study the extent of the effect on the judgement of refree's in the case of Karate competitions in which the participants wear protective face masks and in the case of those in which they do not, experimental tests were carried out among referees and ordinary people to measure their movement vision and instantaneous vision capability. The results are as follows: 1) The rate of correct judgement with respect to instantaneous vision was extremely high (approximately 100%) in Case 0 (no fist) regardless of whether a protective mask was worn or not. 2) In Case 1 (violation) and Case 2 (violation), judging was relatively simple, and the correct judgement rate was over 90% regardless of whether a protective mask was worn or not. 3) In the case of a Waza-ari decision involving a few seconds (10 cm), the degree of correct judgement when a protective mask was worn was 75%, which was 16% below that when a mask not worn. This difference is significant. 4) In situations 4 (15 cm) and 5 (20 cm), many mistakes were made and the rates of correct judgement were low. 5) In situations 0-5, significant differences were noted; the results were approximately 6% worse when protective masks were worn. 6) Instantaneous vision tests conducted on five referee's and five ordinary people in the same age bracket produced a 90.7% correct judgement rate for referee's and 84.6% for ordinary people. There was a significant difference between the two groups. 7) It was found that the smaller the rate of decline in movement vision, the higher the judgement score tended to be in the case of instantaneous vision. From the above all our experimental results, we are thinking that referee's judgement ability is very important, so it seems to be necessary to study how to appraise the technique of referee's judgement.
There are many studies discussing the physical characteristics of judoists. These, however, report on their physique and fundamental physical fitness solely and the total assessment of athletic performance in judoists is not reported. So, in this study, we compared the athletic performance of all Japan reinforced judoists with T score, classifying them according to the body weight. Especially, the physical fitness was classified under anatomical categories such as the index in the upper and lower limbs, and the trunk, etc. We intended to investigate what factor caused the superiority in their performance. The following results were obtained. 1) In the total assessment of the athletic performance, the reinforced judoists that made the best athletic performance showed the best physique, somato index, and fundamental physical fitness. 2) In the distinctive comparison of the physique and somato index according to the body weight class, significant increments were observed in the reinforced judoists of lighter and heavier body weight class. Also, a significant increment in the fundamental physical fitness was observed in five body weight classes. 3) The reinforced judoists that made the best athletic performance showed the significant increments in the circumference of the upper limb, trunk circumference, muscular power, agility, and muscular strength.