From ancient times, Meiso (meditation) has shaped the core of the ascetic exercises, “Syugyo” in case of orientalism. Meiso (meditation) has also been introduced into the process of “Syugyo” by Japanese military arts. So, this study intended to classify the concept of Meiso (meditation) and to investigate what Meiso (meditation) in the military arts had been. Summaries are as follows; (1) Meiso (meditation) is the method to experience a state of unconsciousness above consciousness, and to unify both. (2) According to the psychological point of view, Meiso (meditation) has two aspects; the one is accompanied with active image (for example Yoga) the other is not (Za-Zen). The former refuses external stimuli, the latter is openminded and then keeps awaking situation. (3) From the physical viewpoint has static manner (Za-Zen) and active ones (Kinhin, Jogyozanmai). (4) Statical meditation in the military arts has been used in order to extinguish worldly thoughts and get to the higher state of mind. (5) Performing the practice the military arts, Keiko (Kata) itself can be explained as active meditation with physical exercise, that has made much of the respiratory method. That state of mind is similar to that of Zen.
The purpose of this study was to grasp 1) whether Karate players were overpowered with opponent's skill, mental or physical factors and 2) what situations they got into on receiving any pressure, in the kumite with differents skill levels of opponents. The questionnaires were distributed during the begining of Oct. to the middle of Dec.1984. The responses were obtained toward the case of higher level, same level and lower level opponents. The subiects were 173 Karate players belong to the club in high school, college or company. They were divided in three groups. In the first group, the players had over 2nd dan degree (E group, n=43), in the second group, the players had 1st dan degree (G group, n=53) and in the third group, the players had under 4th kyu degree (P group, n=77). The results were summarized as follows 1. Especially, the players in P group were more overwhelmed by higher level opponents than the other levels. 2. In the kumite with higher level opponents, players in all groups were overpowered with opponent's skill factor, followed by the mental and physical factors. And players in P group were affected by the mental factor as much as skill factor. 3. Regarding to the players who were overpowered with mental factor, there were no relation to opponent's skill levels in E and G group, but in P group there were many players who had much more pressure in kiumite with higher level opponents than the other levels. 4. Regarding to the players who were overpowered with opponent's skill factor, many of them, disregard to their groups, had much more pressure in kumite with higher level opponents than the other level. 5. To be overpowered with opponent's physical factor was no relation to self and opponent's skill levels. 6. Regardless of degree of opponent's skill levels, players in G group showed tendencies of passive attitudes to wait opponent's attack, to have a strong consciousness of not giving points. 7. In the kumite with higher level opponents, players in all groups showed tendencies that their attacks became monotonous and they could not grasp the timing of opponent's attack or the off guard of opponent. In addition to that, players in G and P groups showed a tendency to confuse how to attack.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of displayed force by left fingers on the handle of“shina-i” (fencing stave used in “kendo” ) in kendo (Japanese fencing) while hitting an opponent's face guard or hand armor from the position of the “shina-i” held above the head with left hand and supported ligthly with right hand. The present authors recorded the changes in left elbow joint angle, each force of left index, middle, ring and little fingers exerted on the handle of “shina-i” in three male adult who were skillful at hitting especially from the position of the “shina-i” held above the head. The following results were obtained. 1. Observing from the changes in left elbow joint angle, the subject hit the opponent's faceguard or hand armor, fully extending his left elbow joint. Each goniogram obtained in ten trials showed almost the same pattern in each technique (“men” or “kote”). 2. Left little and ring fingers showed peak force at the point of time of 0.11-0.12 seconds prior to the moment of hitting the opponents, accompanying speedy extension of its elbow joint, in each technique in all subjects. On the contrary to this, the index finger's force began to increase from the moment when the little and ring fingers showed peak force, and it showed peak value just about at the moment of hitting the opponent. The middle finger's force increased at the same time or just after the display of force in little and ring fingers. This first peak value was followed by the second peak one. Therefore, the pattern of displayed force in middle finger showed the intermediate aspect between those of little, ring and index fingers'. 3. When each peak force value was expressed as a percentage of maximum strength of each finger, the little and ring fingers' showed 139-202%and 100-120%, respectively, in technique of “men.” In technique of “kote,”the little and ring fingers' showed 181-240% and 95-105%, respectively.
The purpose of this study has been to examine (1) the effects of Kendo practice on physical strength and skills of women, and (2) the correlations between practice frequency and improvement of women's Kendo skills. Eleven women at the ages of 18-20 have been chosen as subjects. The subjects were divided into two groups-Group A (five practice sessions/week) and Group B (one practice session/week). This study indicates the following two findings: (1) In terms of physical strength, the training has been proven to be effective in the areas of “Structure and function” (Physical fitness) in both groups. (2)With regard to skills, an improvement has been seen in such techniques as kote-men.
We constructed the new data base management system for personal computer, MULTI 16, by the MBASIC. This system managed the data base and/or data file consisted of the results of Judo games and its adress of video tapes. Up to now the volume of this data base was 473 records. This system has 3 functions, (I) Input (II) Retrieval (III) Correction and/or revision. Strong point for this system was more userfriendly.