About the era of Oei (A. D.1400) Chujo Hyogonosuke Nagahide started the Chujo school of swardsmanship, introducing the doctrine of the Zen sect by Jion, a Zen priest into it. Later it prevailed widely in the province of Echizen (now it is Fukui Prefecture), where lived the Toda Family, from whose descendants appeared a large number of masters and experts in succession, as the result of which, the Chujo was called the Toda school before everyone knew it. The founder of the Toda school was Nagaiye, whose son Kageiye succeeded to him and his three sons, Satoiye, Seigen and Kagemasa handed down the secret of the art. It was especially to Shigemasa who was the adopted son of Kagemasa that the authority of this family reached the climax. I have tried to consider in this monograph the details of the tradition which flourished from the Chujo to the Toda school with the help of documents in connection with the same school.
We have a lot of reports on anti-resistance index of frostbite so far. Those reports have dealt mainlywith response of the finger blood vessel to cold. In this study we investigated response of the toe bloodvessel to cold. The subjects consisted of two groups ; Group K……10 men, kendo players who play with naked feet ;Group B……11 men, basketball players who play in their shoes. Measurement was taken twice in autumnand in winter. Skin temperature of the right toe was taken every minute with the multi-point thermister-thermometerfor 5 minutes just before immersing the toe in the cold water, for 30 minutes during immersing, and forl10 minutes after taking up the toe from the water. And the skin temperature was recorded. From the change of skin temperature of the toe we read 1) TBI (temperature before water immersion),2) MST (mean skin temperature), 3) TFR (temperature at first rise), 4) TTR (time of temperature rise),5) AT (amplitude of temperature), and 6) TAI (temperature after water immersion). Then we calculatedanti-chilblain index according to the three-point and five-point method by Yoshimura and by Nakamura . The results are summarized as follows. 1. During immersion in the cold water Group K had a high skin temperature of the toe both in autumnand in winter. And furthermore, only Group K showed a high value of MST in winter significantly (p<0.025). 2. There was no significant difference between Group K and Group B in the skin temperature for 5 minutes before immersion both in autumn and in winter. Nor in TBI was significant difference found.But Group K had a tendency only in winter to show a high value of the skin temperature for 10 minutesafter taking up the toe from the water. Group K also showed a high values of TAI significantly (p<0.005). 3. As to TFR and AT, Group K showed a higher value both in autumn and in winter than Group B did. And the both groups had a tendency to show a higher value of TFR and AT in winter than inautumn. On the other hand, though Group K showed TTR earlier both in autumn and in winter, theboth groups had a tendency to show TTR later in winter than in autumn, It is to be noted that responseof the blood vessel to cold was weaker in winter as regards TTR in contrast to other values measured. 4. Group K showed a higher anti-resistance index of frostbite under every calculating method.However significant difference was found only under the three-point (p<0.025) and five-point (p<0.01,p <0.005) method by Nakamura which excluded influence of TBI at the time of calculation. Under everymethod anti-resistance index of frostbite was higher in winter than in autumn.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the realities of weight reduction of Judoist. Seven healthy students were used as the subjects, who all would participate in weight-classified game a week later. In this report, we dealt with weight reduction means, energy intake and subjective symptom of fatigue. The following results were obtained. 1. Although subject A and D w'ere not necessary to reduce their weight, they tried to do weight reduciton a little to control their body weight daily. Subject C, E and F tried to reduce their body weight by means of cutting their food intake down a little, running, taking a bath and/or daily practice of Judo. Their final weight losses were rangesd between 3 and 3.7%. Subject C already reduced to be 4.1% weight loss in the morning on the official weighing day. Subject B and G were necessary to reduce their body weight about 5.8% and 5.0%, respectively. But in the morning on the second day, their body weight increased, so they had to reduce to be about 6.1% and 6.0% weight loss in 3 days, rspectively. Therefore, they had the means of extreme reduction of diet and dehydration with a sauna bath for a long time. 2. The fairly high correlation (r=0.918) was observed between amount of subjective symptom of fatigue and ratio of weight loss in five subjects except subject A and D who were not necessary to reduce their weight.
The purpose of this study was to investigatet he efficientc haracteristicso f starting motion of skilled Kendo-man at Shomen-uchi and backward Kote-nuki. Subjects for the study were each of 6 skilled and unskilled Kendo-men. The photographical data and force curve from forceplate were analysed. The results were as follows; (1) At Shomen-uchi, Skilled Group move their center of gravity slightly to downward and forward when they begin to attack. Then, the center of gravity move rather horizontally and the velocity of center of gravity is larger than that of Unskilled Group. This large velocity in Skilled Group is caused by less maximum knee joint flection of left leg. This motion seems to use the potential energy. As the movement of right leg, the rate of step length of Skilled Group is larger than that of Unskilled Group. The toe of this lead leg carry back before it reach on the floor. (2) At backward Kote-nuki, Skilled Group move horizontally and their velocity of center of gravity is less than that of Unskilled Group. But, in Unskilled Group, the upper part of the body bend forward for the backward Kote-nuki and their center of gravity move up and down. This motion is not efficient for next attack.
The traces on the pressure sensory paper made with the Shinai were analyzed morphologically in order to examine the manner of Shinai manipulation performed by the expert and novice. The results obtained were summalyzed as follows: 1) The area of Shinai blade (more distal portion than the Shinai's hilt) which makes impact differs according to the striking method employed (Men, Kote and Doh) for the experts although the striking areas of Men and Kote were appoximately same for the novices. 2) The impact region of Kote was most distal, followed in order by Men and Doh. 3) The Shinai was rotated when the novice employed Men or Doh and the expert struck Kote or Doh. 4) Doh was performed by an expert in such a way so that the tip of the Shinai was kept in a higher position than the other end of Shinai, whereas the opposite was true in the case of novice group. 5) In the case of Kote performed, the Shinai moved to the left for the expert and to the right for the novice after the impact of the blade. These results provide the detailed information about the technical Kendo terms such as “hasuji” which means the spacial blade position or “monouchi” which means proper area to strike in the Shinai.
The purpose of this study was to grasp 1) whether female karate players were overpowered with opponent's skill, mental or physical factors and 2) what situations they got into on receiving any pressure, compared with male players. The questionnaires were distributed during the beginning of Oct. to the middle of Dec.1984. The subjects were 180 male and 53 female karate players belonging to the club in high school. The responses were obtained toward the case of higher level, same level and lower level opponents. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The both, female and male players were more overwhelmed by higher level opponents than the other levels. But, there were much more female players who had pressure than male players in the kumite with same level opponents. 2. In the kumite with higher level opponents, especially female players were overpowered with opponent's skill factor, compared with other factors. And also, female players showed the same tendency in the kumite with same level opponents. 3. But, there were few female players who had pressure with opponent's physical factor than male players in the kumite with higher level opponents. 4. Regarding to the players who were overpowered with opponent's mental factor, both players showed the tendency that they had much pressure according to higher degree of opponent's skill levels. 5. Regardless of degree of opponent's skill levels, both players showed the tendency to have a strong consciousness of not giving points. In addition to that, female players showed tendencies that their attacks became monotonous, they could not grasp “maai” of attacking and they wait opponent's attack.
The maneuvers principal in shorinji kempo are positive and passive systems. The positive system is similar to karate techniques, employing kicks, punches, strikes and blocks. The passive system is similar to aikido, employing throws and joint locks. Unlike many other Eastern martial arts, a sparring competition has been banned in shorinji kempo. Instead, a pre-established order of defensive and offensive techniques in the positive and passive systems, called embu, is used for competition. Embu is performed by either 2 players (kumiembu) or many players (dantaiembu). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the physique and cardio-pulmonary functions of vocational high school students. Seventeen healthy male students at Kyoto Shorinji Vocational High School volunteered in this study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups. Group A consisted of 6 subjects taking the same classes as those in group B and belonging to the shorinji kempo club at the school. Group B consisted of 11 subjects taking shorinji kempo classes at the school (80 minutes per class,4 classes per week). There were no significant differences between the groups in height, weight, chest girth, Rohrer's index, fat weight, and fat free body weight. The values in weight and chest girth in both groups were slightly higher than for normal 17-year-old male students. Vital capacity (V. C. ), maximum oxygen uptake (MaxVO2), maximum VO2 per kg body weight (MaxVO2/kg·min. ), maximum ventilation (MaxVE), maximum oxygen pulse (MaxO2 pulse) and exhaustion time for group A were significantly higher than for group B. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in maximum respiratory rate (Max R. R. ), maximum heart rate (Max H. R. )and respiratory quatient (R. Q. ). MaxVO2/kg min for group B was 5.5 ml/kg·min lower than for normal 17-year-old male students. /kgmin for group A was 5.5 ml/kg·min higher than for normal 17-year-old male students and was 21.1 ml/kg min lower than for elite middle distance runners.
The system of Dan-i (rank) in Judo originated from a suggestion of Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo, in August,16th year of the Meiji era (1883) and Dan-Kya (rank and Class) regulation were codified in July,12th year of the Taisho era (1923). They have been revised many times up to the present. This paper aims to make clear how Dan-i system has come to be acknowledged and put into practice in foreign countries, and also to find a clue to settling its problems. From this viewpoint, I made a comparative study of Japanese Dan-Kyu regulation with those established by Confederacaõ Brasileira de Judo (CBJ). “Dan-i” in Judo originally represents the degree achived by trainees in point of their proficiency as well as bodily and mental strength. No wonder, CBJ regulations were made according to this purport. I think it is very useful to make Judo a popular and life long sport that Kyr' in particular was regulated in more detail. It can be said, however, this tends to cause serious trouble even the practitioners who have not had much experience in Judo contests can sometimes obtain Dan-i easily. We can not deny that there are various problems with Dan-i system. “How can practitioners skill be estimated properly?” The more international Judo has become, the more complicated the problems concerning Dan-i system have become. These are urgent matters that call for our careful consideration.