The practical characteristics of Iai and Kenjutsu are quite distinct when they are phenomenally judged. In Iai, on the whole, unsheathing the sword is the most important technique and great weight is given to the process of unsheathing it. In Kenjutsu, on the other hand, the technique begins after unsheathing the sword and taking a certain posture (kamae). So we can regard the relation between the two as “mihatsu” (before unsheathing) and “ihatsu” (after unsheathing). Closer investigation, however, reveal that Iai has “kata” not only of “mihatsu”but also of“ihatsu”in the case of “tachiai” (initial moving from standing posture), and that Kenjutsu also has its own techniques to unsheathe the sword. Thus these two martial arts, in which to use the Japanese swords, have the technique in common with each other. But, the main purpose of Iai is to cope with emergencies in daily life, so the point of view was directed to various, broad aspects of daily life, and in Kenjutsu, the point of view was directed only to the aspects of fighting after taking a certain posture. On that point these two were remarkably different from each other. Iai and Kenjutsu, after Ede era, had tendency to develop in their own way and to specialize as well. But on account of this, there appeared reversed thought that these two should be regarded as compensating each other.
There have been many discussions about whether Budo is considered to be a sport or not. Ancient Budo was a part of traditional Japanese culture, but it has developed into a competitive sport. Budo has made contributions to many aspects of our society: for example, to the arts, to the education, and so on. The Satsuma feudal clan's emphasis on education promoted it to build the first Budo gymnasium, including the Inuomono stadium and the Zoshi gym, despite of the clan's great debt. The courses of the sword was most emphasized; horseriding and archery were taught every day and the handle of a long sword and a spear were done every other day. The Satsuma teachers of Budo were the first persons who with feudal masters went to Edo to study Budo. Other feudal clans came to Satsuma to teach errantry of knights. The Budo school had its foundations before the modern times and since then, it has spread throughout Japan.
The aim of the present study were to extract the factorial structure of consciousness of stage fright of judoists, and to establish the scale of it. Ichimura's 50 questionnaire concerning the trait of stage fright were administered to 96 top judoists. Calculated correlation matrix was factored with both exploratory and confirmatory procedures. Derived factorial structure were not clearly differentiated compared to the results of Ichimura's studies. Moreover, it was found that these items were greatly homogeneous and the dimensionality of its scale was one. Taking both factorial validity and internal consistency into consideration, the scale constructed with 41 selected items was established by means of modified Short Method. Individual stage fright composite scores were calculated by picking up the scores from the weighted matrix. It will be useful for coaches to find out the judoists who used to get a stage fright.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of somatotype and standing posture in male children participating judo and kendo clubs. Sixty two judo,101 kendo and,192 children of control were assessed to their body types by the Heath -Carter somatotype method. In addition,77 judo,101 kendo, and 161 children of control were measured to their spine curvatures, difference of bi-acromion height, weight distribution between right and left, location of the center of gravity in anterior-posterior axis of feet, and the body alignment test. The results were as follows: 1) Children in judo club showed endomorphic mesomorph type while those of kendo club did balanced mesomorph type. 2) Judo children who had long experience of practice showed high endomorphic and mesomorphic components and low ectomorphic components. 3) The somatotype of kendo children showed same as that of control children. 4) The dorsal and lumbar curvature of judo and kendo children were less than those of control children. 5) Children in kendo club had a tendency to be inclined backward in head and neck position while judo children had a little difference of their bi-acromion height. 6) In the body alignment test, the score of judo and kendo was higher than that of control children.
It was Jigoro Kano who successfully made a renovative reform in Japanese Judo, organizing the various schools of traditional Japanese art of self-defence. His idea was based on the firm belief that Judo should be helpful in training the body and mind together, and be effective in molding the human nature so that one may work in the interests of society. Kouchigari is one of the many techniques to reach the above-mentioned purposes of Judo, and the best technique of Kouchigari should be an embodiment of this idea to the greatest possible degree. The acquisition and application of Kouchigari as kimewaza means to make use of the body and mind in the most effective way. The author has discussed in this paper the technical changes of Kouchigari that have been taking place so far, and at the same time has dealt with its historical background, origin and fundamental significance. And the author has considered the analysis of the kinds and techniques of Kouchigari as a grappling that has lead to the inquiry into kime (osaewaza) in addition to kuzushi, tsukuri and kake as basic techniques and to the rational and effective application of Kouchigari. In the traditional Judo before the modern Judo established by Jigoro Kano, Judo-contests' victory or defeat was decided by nihon (two full points), not by ippon (one full point) as today. And there have been repeated revisions of rules with its spread as the international sports. Today's international umpiring rules of Judo has very delicate criterion for judging, such as yuko or koka. Accordingly, the Kouchigari trick has been changing not only to gain ippon, but also to get advantageous judgement through giving repetitive attacks to the opponents. In other words Kouchigari as a sacrifice trick to get ippon is changing into Kouchigari as a variety (one-hand Kouchigari) which can be easily applied with one hand. Kouchigari as a sacrifice trick is giving place to Kouchigari as a variety aming at gaining an advantageous judgement. This technical change also the case with other techniques of Judo. With the increasing extension of Judo, the techniques have been seen newly thought-out varieties, while the reconsideration of the techniques in terms of fundamental significance of victory or defeat in Judo contests should be invited in the author's discussion.
A quentionnaire survey was conducted to clear the smoking habits among male university athletes. 425 male students aged 18-23 responded to the questions of their smoking habits, daily dietary life and sleeping anonymously. The differences of smoking habits among athletes are analyzed in this report. The results are as follows;. 1) Among the male university athletes,45.2% have smoking habits.. 2) The percentages of the smokers among Kendoists, Ruggers and Gymnasts are high (82.7%,73.4%,61.9%, respectively), and those among Soccer players, Judoists and Swimmers are low (8.1%,11.5%,18.2%, respectively).. 3) There is a remarkable difference of daily diet and sleep between the smokers and the nonsmokers. The Nonsmokers have more desirable diet and enough sleep, and also, there is a remarkable difference between events of athlete.. 4) Volleyballers, Track and Field athletes and Swimmers obtain higher scores of Dietary Index more than players of other events.