The aim of this study is to demonstrate logically that Anko Itosu (born in Okinawa in 1830 and died in 1914) formed a nodal point from traditional Karatedo to modern Karatedo by the basis of 2 guideposts. 1. The first guidepost, Mr. Itosu's manuscript (10 articles)-3 Elements which form his view of Karatedo (1) Spiritual element The concept of Budo which forms the basis of his Karatedo. (2) Bujyutsu element The concept of Budo which forms the basis of his Karatedo. (3) Physical element-The new viewpoint which forms the foundation of his Karatedo. 2. The second guidepost, Itosu's Karatedo-Kata -His parts in the establishment of modern Karatedo (1) He mastered and critically succeeded most of the traditional Karatedo-Kata-then he acquired the materials of his modern Karatedo. (2) He adapted the many traditional Karatedo-Kata and recorganized some medern Karatedo-Kata from them----The period of transition to the modern Karatedo. (3) He created the original modern Karatedo-Kata “Pin-An Syodan-Godan”, spread Karatedo widely and established the teaching method of modern Karatedo.
The purpose of this study was to examine the specificity of power at “Tachiai” in Sumo wrestlers and the relationship between its power and force in “Atari (impact)”. Two kinds of power from the “Shikiri” position and standing start position were measured by the method of inertia wheel loading. The loads (equivalent masses) were 35.2kg,53.3kg,89.9kg,182.9kg, and 556.7kg. The force in “Atari” was measured as the maximum impulsive pressure against the vertical force plate. Subjects were five top and five intermediate-level intercollegiate Sumo wrestlers. The following results were obtained: 1) From both the “Shikiri” position and the standing start position, the top-level wrestlers generated greater power than the intermediate-level. Two differences were significant (p<0.01). The difference regarding the “Shikiri” position was particularly remarkable. 2) With the intermediate-level wrestlers, power from the “Shikiri” position was remarkably less than from the standing start position. Its difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). 3) Concerning the top-level wrestlers, there was no significant difference between power from the “Shikiri” position and that from the standing start position. Power at the top-level obtained from the “Shikiri” position was less than that from the standing start position at loads of 35.2kg,53.3kg, and 89.9kg. However; the “Shikiri” position with heavier loads of 182.9kg, and 556.7kg, showed signs of producing equal or greater power than the standing start position. 4) The mean of the maximum impulsive pressure among the top-level wrestlers was greater than that among the intermediate-level by about 25%, though its difference was statistically nonsignificant. 5) All coefficients of correlation of power from the “Shikiri” position to maximum impulsive pressure and to body weight were significant except for that with the lowest load. As the load got heavier, the coefficient became greater (Table 5). In addition, the correlation coefficent of maximum impulsive pressure and body weight was significant (r=0.711, p<0.05). The partial correlation of power from the “Shikiri” position and maximum impulsive pressure, excluding the factor of body weight, ranged nonsignificantly from 0.285 to 0.478. These results suggested that the “Shikiri” position might be a very disadvantageous position for the intermediate-level wrestlers in trying to produce greater power. Moreover, body weight was found to play an important role in generating power from “Shikiri” and force in “Atari”.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the realities of weight reduction of Judoist. Seven healthy students were used as the subjects, who all would participate in weight-classified game a week later. In this report, we dealt with anthropometric measurements, body composition and chemical blood findings. The following results were obtained. 1. Remarkable decrease of skinfold thickness was observed in abdomen both in LWR and HWR group. Further, in HWR group, same decrease was found in upper arm. 2. Percentages of body fat loss to body weight loss were 59.8% in LWR group and 39.6% in HWR group. In NWR group, it was 80.0% though subject was one. 3. Notable decrease of girth of abdomen was found both in LWR and HWR groups. 4. Blood sugar was kept constant throughout weight reduction peried. During the games, it was inclined to increase gradually. 5. Urea nitrogen (BUN) in HWR group was decreased on the second day, and then notable increase was found. In LWR group, moderate increase was observed throughout weight reduction period. 6. Uric acid in HWR group was significantly high compared with those in LWR and NWR groups. There were no significant differences between in LWR and in NWR groups. 7. Significant decrease of triglyceride was found in HWR group. In LWR group, it was inclined to decrease but it was not significant. 8. Creatinephosphokinase (CPK) in LWR and NWR groups were inclined to increase. On the other hand, that in HWR group was kept constant and it was notable lower level compared with those in LWR and NWR groups during weight reduction period and games.
In Edo era some people, who wished to pursue the techniques of kenjutsu and to improve them, called at the other clan (han) in oder to enter into the kenjutsu-school (ryuha) in the clan and to receive direct instruction from the head of the school (sole). They profoundly examined the details of kata which had been already acquired and got the kata readjusted by the head of the school. The training form of this kind, which the auther call “homon-syugyo”, was often practiced in various fields of Japanese martial arts. “Hoshino -ki” is a document which was kept at the Katayama-family. According to the document, Kakuemon Hoshino (a clansman of Kumamoto) visited Risuke Katayama (a head of Katayama-school)in Iwakuni to master kenjutsu at the bth year of An' ei (1777). And we can regard it as a typical case of “homon -syugyo” and get the actual information of it in detail. “Homon-syugyo” was practiced due to the Japanese martial arts whose techniques were mainly transmitted from individual to individual by means of kata in the bujutsu-school. Kata was characteristically transmitted in Japanese culture, and it could not be avoided to cange for various reasons. So those who had respect for legitimacy and was much concerned with their own school, like Kakuemon Hoshino, wished to enter into the original school and to get the kata readjusted. And moreover, “homon -shugyo” itself was very effective to show the legitimacy of their school to others.
In recent years, they are calling the contradiction of the Cartesian mind-body dualism in question in the West. And scholars in various circles are re-examining heartily the mind-body problem in order to find a way out of the mental and social unrest. They are taking special notice of the traditional patterns of thinking in the East, because there is a strong tendency in the Eastern theories of the body to grasp the mind and body as an inseparable unity. So, this study intended to relate “ki” with “breath”, considered to be central issue in the Eastern theories about the body, in the military arts of Japan. Summaries are as follows; 1. “BREATH” was thought of coming and going of “ki” in the military arts. And the relationship between the cosmos and the human beings has been discussed as the correspondence between the macro-cosmos and the micro-cosmos (cosmology). This tought originated in China (Confucianism).2. “Breath” in the military arts has been used in order to control “ki”, to get to a higher state of mind and to improve ability of the body. x 3. In the match, “breath” was one of the ways of making “ma” (timing, rhythm, pace) between the player and his opponent. And in the case of a higher rank, an expert could control his opponent by using only “ki”.
This study was designed to investigated in the muscular strength trait of top-ranking judo players through factor analytic procedures, and the following conclusions were induced. (1) Five strength factors were extracted and they were interpreted as “upper body strength”, “arm strength”, “leg strength”, “leg power”, and “muscular endurance”, respectively. (2) In these factorial structures, considerable degree of differentiation was recognized in spite of less number of variables used. (3) Difference of the strength factor score among weight classes is comparatively clear. (4) Strength as one of fundamental physical fitness elements is not an effective factor to enable discrimination among contest performance.