This is the study that took shape as the general remarks for recollecting the tendencies and problems of Japanese Academy of Budo to the memory of the twentieth anniversary. (1) The aims and systems of the foundation of this Academy were reviewed historyically up.to now. (2) The titles at the academic forums were classified into scientific fields and each Budo category and the tendencies of them were investigated. (3) At the same time, the same study was practised about the titles of “Research of Budo”, an organ journal of the Japanese Academy of Budo. (4) The list of symposiums held at the meetings and the names of special guest instructors and their themes was made to make them be seen at a glance. (5) Commendations have been awarded to those who wrote excellent treatises since 1981 and the names of the recipients were put on the list to be praised.
The purpose of this study is to obtain the useful data for the improvement of combativity on different levels of judo competitions. The results are as follows: (1) The average dan grade of participants is higher in higher level of judo competitions. Participants in All-Japan level are taller, heavier, and younger than those in Tohoku-Area level on the physical characteristics and the chronological age. (2) The percentage of participants with left-side gripping is higher in higher level of competitions such as All Japan Judo Championship and Kodokan Cup All Japan Judo Championships. Competitors with left-side gripping showed higher percentage of victory in the matches of right versus left-side gripping. (3) There is no remarkable differences of techniques applied on the different levels of competitions. (4) The average frequency of techniques applied per minute is higher in higher level of competitions. Competitors who applied more various techniques showed a higher percentage of victory. (5) The number of variety of techniques applied per minute is higher in higher level of competitions. (6) Participants in higher level of competitions apply techniques concentrically and frequently in the latter half of the match. From the above, it seems to be indispensable for the competitors to develop the endurance which enables them to apply various techniques concentrically and frequently in the latter half of the match as well as to apply various highly-skilled techniques constantly throughout the match.
The present was carried out to investigate the effect of diet composition on the changes of physique due to weight reduction of Judoist. Twelve active Judoists were used as the subjects. They were divided into four groups; protein diet supplemented with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), protein diet (P), carbohydrate diet (C) and usual diet (UD) groups. The diets of three groups except UD group supplied 500kcal/day. Water was given adlibitum. The results obtained were as follows 1) The decrement of body weight due to 1 week weight reduction were 6.01+2.07%,6.29+1.13% and 6.34+1.40 in BCAA, P and C groups, respectively. There were no significant differences among three weight reduction groups. The decrements of body weight in all weight reduction groups (n=9) were 6.21+1.38%, on average. 2) Water intakes per day were 3372±504ml,3100±104ml,2276+517ml and 2611±1468ml in BCAA, P, C and UD groups, respectively. 3) On average, the decrements of girth of upper arm, breast, abdomen and thigh were ordered as C>P> BCAA, C> BCAA >P, BCAA > P > C and BCAA >P> C groups, respectively. 4) The skinfold thickness in upper arm, subscapular and abdominal parts significantly decreased in all weight reduction groups after weight reduction. The larger decrement of skinfold thickness was found in abdominal part than in other two parts. 5) Triglyceride (TG) significantly decreased on the 4th day in all weight reduction groups. Free fatty acid (FFA), on the other hand, significantly increased on the 4th day in all weight reduction groups. After that, FFA in BCAA and P groups showed the tendency of decrease but in C group showed the tendency of increase. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) increased on the 4th day in BCAA and P groups, and then decreased on the 7th day. BUN in C and UD groups did not change during weight reduction period.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the causes of the right heel problems in Kendo players. Ten three-Dan Kendo players were examined as subjects in the current study - five with right heel problems and the other five with no right heel problems. The shomen-uchi (stepping-in motion) movement was investigated. Force components along X, Y and Z axes of right foot force were measured by use of a forceplate, and the forms of the movement were filmed utilizing a 16mm high-speed cinecamera (400frame/s), simultaneously. Next, the foot force data were sampled with a sampling period of 0.28ms, and processed by use of a low-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 400Hz. Based on the images in the film, the coordinates of the important points of the bodies of the players were picked up utilizing a motion analyzer. Then the angles of important parts of the body from the vertical line and the center of gravity of the body were calculated, and analyzed statistically. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The mean values of the maximum foot force and maximum foot acceleration of the players with heel problems are larger than those of players without heel problems. In particular, the mean value of the downward component of maximum acceleration of players with heel problems is larger than that of players without problems. 2. The striking action of players with heel problems and those without heel problems differ in the upper body (before foot contact), the head, trunk and lower body (after foot contact). 3. With respect to the striking action of players with heel problems, it has been observed that the attitude of the right lower leg is near the vertical, the trunk leans forward, the head backward, the forearm tilts upward, and the shinai is held near horizontally. This has been seen both before and after foot contact. 4. In players with heel problems, the angular changes in both the right ankle and right knee joint were smaller than the angular changes in joints of players with no heel problems. It is therefore surmised that the less the angular change of the ankle and knee of the forward foot, the greater is the chance of heel problems.
The purpose of this article is to compare strategy in the Sonshi School with that in the Shinkage-Yagyu School. In particular, kido or the “tricky way” is compared with hyori or “tactics”, because these two words are key words in both strategies. Kido implies a movement of troops, whereas hyori means action in tachiai or man to man combat. However, hyori was also thought to be applicable to a movement of troops as well. Therefore, it is possible to compare these two concepts. The results of this article are summarized as follows: 1) Kido or tricky way in Sonshi means unusuality in the battlefield. Hyori or tactics in the Shinkage-Yagyu School deceives an opponent in tachiai. In this point kido can be considered to be similar to hyori. 2) A difference between kido, tricky way, and hyori, tactics, is that kido in Sonshi is just strategy, and has nothing to do with ethics. However, hyori or tactics in the Shinkage-Yagyu School obtains truth through falsehood, has truth in itself, and devises a stratagem. Since hyori in the Shinkage-Yagyu School is suitable for tendo or Natural Reason, hyori is not incompatible with ethics when considering aspects of the Shinkage-Yagyu School.
“Homon-shugyo”, visiting practice was a form of training of kenjutsu in Edo era. And from it we know the state of kenjutsu in those days, in which emphasis of practice was mainly laid upon learning the kata (a training method for offense and defence patterns) of the school. “Higo-Kumamoto, Hoshino Ryosuke shugyo-nikki” is a document about “homon-shugyo” of Ryosuke Hoshino who was a son of Kakuemon Hoshino, whose “homon-shugyo” the auther presented before in this organ. So in this paper I intended to clarify how his “homon-shugyo” was actually practiced, and considered the process of instruction in Katayama-school that he entered according to the document. Summaries are as follows; (1) Ryosuke Hoshino looked up to the head of katayama-school as his teacher, which his parent Kakuemon had entered before, and visited him to learn its kata as far as to the stage to which Kakuemon couldn't get. The procedure of accepting Ryosuke as a disciple differed from that of doing Kakuemon in some respects, because his origin was already known and custom had been well established as precedent to accept other “homon-shugyo” trainees. (2) Ryosuke's practice got to higher stage than that of Kakuemon. Moreover, he wished to see into the kata of Ohgi beyond the stage, which manifested his enthusiasm for kenjutsu. And the head of Katayama-school gave a warm reception for him, who acted as teacher at his Kumamoto clan. (3) There were raughly two kind of rolls (mokuroku) in Katayama-school and trainees learned its kata according to them, which was an ordinary process of instruction in the school, and Ryosuke trained himself in this way. But in his “homon-shugyo” he couldn't get so as to “jun-menkyo”, a level of practice in the school because of a limitted period of time.
The aim of this study is to analyze the contemporary trends of accidents occurring during aikido practice using the publications of three non-profit insurance associations, to introduce eleven serious accidends, and to suggest preventive measures. The key points of the preventive measures are as follows; 1. To appreciate fully the potentially dangerous points of kata-practice of aikido. 2. To suggest preventive measures for avoiding accidents by shiho-nage and irimi-nage and to introduce medical opinions on the accidents. 3. To do preventive exercises, especially isometrics trainning for the neck. 4. Ensuring that the people concerned understand, draw up a report and publicize how the accident occurred and what should be done to prevent recurrences.