Unkv-rya is a school of Kenjutsu, the Japanese traditional swordsmanship.In the early days of the Edo era, it was established by Itori Kyoun who learned Kenjutsu at the Kô-ryû school and Mujû shinken-ryû school. Kengo Tominaga was the first researcher who referred to the lineage, the old documents, the Kata (forms) and the method of bamboo sword practice of this school in the Kumamoto district. There are few studies on this school except his posthumous works. The porpose of this study is to clarify the details related to the tradition of Unkô-ryû, through the analysis of the documents and materials we have recently discovered and offered by Mr. Hiromichi Inoue, the present master of this school. The results can be summarized as follows; 1) All the hereditary masters of Unkô-ryû styled themselves with the names which include the same word Un. It was succeeded to the usage of Muju shinken-rya, for example, Harigaya Sekiun or Kodegiri Ichiun.2) In Unkô-ryû, the licence on the first and the middle grades are “Zuijun-no-shô” and “Sankyôroku”, the documents of Kô-ryû. Two licences out of three on the final grade are “Sekiun-rya Kenjutsu-sho” and “Tenshin-dokuro” written by Kodegiri Ichiun, the second master of Muju shinken-ryû.3) The method of bamboo sword practice in this school was also succeeded to the style of Muju-shinken-ryû.-Two persons faced each other try to. do the same technique “Men (head)-striking”, from the same posture “Hassô”, at the same time. This was the only practice called Aiuchi, and a very unique one disregarded victory or defeat. Thus Unkô-ryû is a Kenjutsu school combined these two schools.; however, it is supposed to have been influenced by Muju shinken-ryu much more than by Kô-ryû.
Fuji-Sin-Ryu (Kenjutsu School) was founded by Nakamura-Isshinsai, a clansman of Simabara, influenced by the religion of Fuji-Ko, a kind of falk belief, in 1818. This study aimed at explaining the original social roll of Fuj i-Sin-Ryu, by considering the distribution of the religion practiced by the believers at the foot of Mt. Fuji. Summaries are as follows: 1. At the end of the Edo Period, rural districts, especially Boo (Kazusa, Simofusa, Awa Province), were almost ruined by frequent famines and poor crops and public morality was forgotten and the economy of farms went into bankruptcy. So, Nakamura Isshinsai tried to establish morality in the rural district of Boso, with many pupils involved there, where the religion of “Fuji-Do” and “Fuji-KO” were practiced among the local people. 2. The main philosophy of Fuji-Sin-Ryu are revitalized in the scroll of “Chikoku-Anmin”, and then we can realized the role of Fuji-Sin-Ryu in it. The scroll of “Chikoku-Anmin” was based on the idea of the religion of Fuji-Ko, designed to bring about the technics in farming and about the encounter with “Youki-Rentan” (the Meditation of Taoism). 3. Nakamura Isshinsai regarded the tactics not as a “technique” for killing others, but as the “truth”for improving the personal and mental aspects. This interpretation became the originality of Fuji-Sin-Ryu. In addition, the realization of philosophy of Fuji-Sin-Ryu could go in agreement with the request of the upper-layer farmers, and he worked hard for the relief of the farmer to founding the farming system at that time.
Kata (form) has been of extreme significance in Ryuha (school) from the birth of martial arts. This is because it is the essence of a situation which is a matter of victory and defeat, or life and death. For this reason, I have been studying the Shinkage-Yagyu-Ryu in Owari during the Tokugawa era. I especially studied its early stage. In this paper, I studied books on the martial arts to see how Kata are passed on in the Ryu. The summary is as follows; 1. Muneyoshi YAGYU set up Shinkage-Yagyu-Ryu on the basis of Kata which Hidetsuna KAMIIZUMI had brought into Shinkage-Ryu. 2. Muneyoshi not only implemented Hidetsuna's Kata as they were but also put in new Kata or removed several of them. These modifications show how he added his own personality to the original Kata. 3. Muto-dori (the way of taking an enemy's sword) is one of his originals, it is a secret of Shinkage-Yagyu-Ryu. The process of making up the Muto-dori is as follows; Hakka-hissyo→Marobashi→Muto-dori. Such a sequence means that both mind and body act in union to perform Muto-dori.
There is an old saying in Kendo that states: “First, the eyes; sencondly, the feet; thirdly, courage; and fourthly, strength. ”Thus, stance and footwork are the very fundamentals in Kendo. Since the standard of stance has been changed with time, it is difficult to give a definition of the correct stance. Therefore, the historical changes in length and width of the stance, especially in the chuudan basic position (Chuudan no Kamae) during Meiji and Taisho eras, have brought to a focus in the present paper. The results are as follows: 1) The length of a step in natural walking, namely about twice of foot length, is taken as a standard of stance in Kenjyutsu from the end of Edo era to the beginning of Meiji era. 2) In the latter half of Meiji era, a tendency toward a shorter stence is in evidence, because of setting a standard form of Kenjyutsu (Kenjyutsu-Kata) and movement of changes toward the both hands sword method in the army. 3) The army adopted the both hands sword method in the fourth year of Taisho era. Then, the length of stance came shorter approximately to one and a half of foot length in police, army and school. 4) As a result that both players stand face to face with their back straight, they are supposed to move forward and backward quickly both in offense and defense. And such a kind of techniques with quick motion came to be prevalent in Kendo.
The purpose of this study is to obtain the relationship of fundamental physical fitness between the highschool judo men and college judo men. The results were as follows: (1) We extracted nine factors of fundamental physical fitness after analyzing the result of the fitness tests. (2) These data showed the factors of muscular strength is simply related to the elements of body structure and power for high school judo men. While the college judo athletes data showed a stronger relationship between the coordination and the flexibility. (3) On highschool judo athletes, the factor of coordination had a simple relationship to the factor of body structure. However, it had relation to the muscular strength and the power in college judo athletes. And we conjecture that their limb movements were strongly related t well trained body elements. (4) For both highschool and college judo athletes, the bigger the body structure is, the more power, the body generates. (5) The factor of muscular endurance is not always related to the muscular strength.
Since the first All-Japan Women's Judo Championship was held in 1978, women judoists have been rapidly increasing in number. On the other hand, however, the number of judoists who get injured while practicing or taking part in matches has been increasing. In view of this fact, we have tried to obtain information by means of questionnaires given to 392 women judoists with a view to finding the actual situation of the injuries suffered by women judo trainees and thus turning the findings to advantage, in order to prevent such injuries in future. The results are as follows: 1. In the case of parts injured, these is a growing tendency for injuries on the joints of the foot, waist, and knee; and the arm, leg and so on. 2. In the case of complaints, a sprain in the joints of the foot, lumbago, and so forth were found to occur frequently. 3. Compared with men, women have more injuries to the joints of the foot, knee, and waist, and the arm. There was a tendency that less injuries were found in the joints of the shoulder and the head. Also the results showed a tendency for less women to have fractured bones than men. 4. Various injuries were often recorded for those who are small in stature and are of light weight. In addition, injuries to the waist occur frequently regardless of stature or weight. 5. As for men, many suffer injury when they are thrown down, and there was a high tendency for women to get bruises on the waist when they were thrown down. As mentioned above, the condition of the occurrence of injuries for women was almost the same as for men, but on the other hand, as to the injury of bodily parts, women showed a different tendency. Accordingly, in order to prevent bodily injury, I think it seems to be necessary that we should think out the method of practicing, giving careful consideration to the physical characteristics of women in general.
The purpose of this study is to investigate weight reduction programs of high school Judoists, and to analyze the data to coach Judoists on weight reduction. The results obtained were as follows: 1. As to the question of why do you practice weight reduction, thirty-two students (57.1%) replied that the decision of whether to participate or not was personal, and was not going to be changed by others'influence. 2. As to the question of what do you think about success in weight reduction, thirty-one students (51.4%) replied that success actually meant to do one's best, even if they could not win; and twelve students (21.4%) replied that success meant to win, even if they were in bad condition. 3. As to the way of weight reduction, many of the students replied that reducing diet was effective but painful at that time, and restriction of water had little effect but meant much pain. 4. As to subjective symptoms of fatigue, thirty-four students (60.7%) replied that their bodies felt heavy and thirsty. Obviously, individual differences (physical, psychological and mental) affected replies. 5. As to the question of do you know the term of “lean body mass”, most of students (97.4%) did not know the term.6. The knowledge of basic nutrition, such as that regarding proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamines, minerals, were generally known.