This study is aimed at explaining the origin of the name, techniques, and philosophy of Jikishinryu Judo, founded in Shimane Prefecture and felt to be the first to use the term ‘judo’ in its nomenclature. Details of the study include: 1) Mitsuhide Terada was the founder of Jikishinryu Jujyutsu, the early name for Jikishinryu Judo, and was later succeeded by Sadatsugu Terada and, subsequently by Masanaga Inoue. 2) Masayori Inoue, the forth successor of the head family, changed the name from Jikishinryu Jujyutsu to Jikishinryu Judo in 1724. 3) The main lesson content of Jikishinryu Jujyutsu consisted of sword handling techniques for use when wearing armor, with thirty techniques altogether. On the other hand, techniques of Jikishinryu Judo, the modified version of Jikishinryu Jujyutsu, increased in number from thirty to ninety-seven, and included techniques suitable for casually-dressed participants, such as hitting techniques (atemi-waza) and throwing thechniques (nage-waza). Jikishinryu Judo was a synthesized martial art with both sword and hand techniques. 4) The doctrine of Jikishinryu Judo included not only the mastery of techniques for battle, but also a philosophical approach to conducting one's life based on a combination of firmness and flexibility tempered with moderation and mild temperament.
To discuss the weak consciousness among university Judo players and to facilitate the development of the technique, we conducted the questionaire research and analysed by using some statistical methods. The results were as follows; 1. Many players (students) had some weak consciousness. In this research,239 players (95.2 %) were found to form the consciousness. Those elements were mainly the style of grasp (34.3 %) and the physique (27.2 %). 2. The players felt the weak conciousness from the superior person to match at physique, and it was especially related to the weight. 3. In the style of grasp, it was a main consciousness when a player held the left-sided posture. In the position of “HIKITE” (i. e., the right hand at right-sided posture), the first weakness was “SODEGUCHI”the sleeve (50.2%). In the “TSURITE” (the reverse of HIKITE), the first was “OKUERI”the back of neckwhich corresponded to 62.8 %. These trends were higher in smaller players. 4. There were no significant relationships between the good Judo technique (waza) and these consciousness. 5. Those who are more powerful, have various attacking patterns, and attacks positively were considered to be the total image of the stronger person. 6. These patterns of the consciousness agree well with the result of the Judo match. It is effective to improve the ability of players to overcome these weak consciousness.
The SHINKAGE-YAGYU-RYU (one of the Kendo Schools) was founded by Muneyoshi YAGYU who had been influenced by Hidetsuna KAMIIZUMI (SHINKAGE-RYU). In the early 17th century, this school was succeeded by Toshitoshi YAGYU who was the Muneyosi's grandson. He had been to the Higo (Kumamoto district) and had met Kiyomasa KATO in 1603. He had been able to know the national situation, so he founded the original style of SHINKAGE-YAGU-RYU when he went back to the Yagyu (Nara district) again. Furthermore, his son Toshikane YAGYU, who was influenced by his father started to change the KATA (form)in this school. The porpose of this study is to clarify the change of KATA from Muneyoshi to Toshitoshi, Toshikane. The findings are as follows. 1. As Toshitoshi denied his father's KATA, he founded the new style called “TSUTTATTAR U-MI-KAMAE”which was a form of changing one's weight from legs to waist. 2. Although Muneyoshi didn't write down the mental things in letters, Toshitoshi started to write down these things. (for example, BOUSHIN, KI, the sound of wind and water) 3. Toshikane changed the system of learning the KATA in this school, and after that he established the phased method of teaching. 4. He contrived the “GASSHI-UCHI” which didn't exist before. Although this technique was an actual fighting, it was rater considered a technique to practice mental elements.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual state of Dan acquisition among European kendoists on the grounds of “THE EUROPEAN YUDANSHA-LIST 1987” issued by the European Kendo Federation (Aug.18,1987). The results obtained can be summarized as follows. 1. As shown in Graph 1, SHO Dan graders represent 52 % and those under SAN Dan more than 90 %. It suggests that the shotage of higher-ranked, leading kendoists is, still a very serious problem in European countries. 3. Compared with the situation in Japan, the number of kendoists under 20 years or over 50 years is extremely small. The average age of the Yudansha in EKF is 28.4 years. In Japan (e. g., Saitama-ken Kendo Federation) 92.6 % of SHO Dan graders turned out to be young kendoists under 20 years, while in Europe it was only 13.8 %. 3. Four hundreds and forty-two European Yudansha (75.8%) aquired their Dan within the practice period prescribed in the International Kendo Federation Standard Rules for Dan/Kyu Examination or during the next year. Those who were promoted within 4 years after getting former Dan reached the percentage of 90.2. In other words, we can say that 90 % of those remaining unpromoted over 5 years (284 in number, which corresponds to one third of the total EKF Yudansha) have very little chance of promotion. 4. The number of promoted kendoists in EKF is steadily, though not in a large manner, increasing when examined every 5 years since 1966.
Fuminori NAKIRI(Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology)The purpose of this study was to analyze the shoulder and waist in torsion on the Shomen-uchi movement in Kendo at two types of distance. The shomen-uchi movement was filmed at 100 f. p.s with two 16mm high speed cameras. Three-dimensional coordinates for the segment endpoints were computed by using a direct linear transformation technique. The subjects for this study were 5 males,19 to 20 years of age, with 7 to 10 years of experience and 3 dan degree. The results were summarized as follows: 1) On the long distance, the changes in the shoulder and waist angles seem to be larger, and the amplitude in the shoulder and waist angle in torsion also seem to be larger. 2) There were two types of movements in the shoulder and waist angle in torsion on the shomen-uchi movement. A type: In the phase of the maximum point of raising the shinai, there was a cross motion between the shoulder and the waist. B type: During the shomen-uchi movement, no cross motion occurred between the shoulder and the waist.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiac dimensions and the influences of Kyudo practice in the function of the left ventricle and responses of cardiac function during shooting. The subjects were 14 shooters whose ages were 63-85 years (the average 68.8 years old) and even now they take part in formal Kyudo matches. Total body fat was assessed by the skinfold caliper method. The left venticular structure and function were measured using M-mode echocardiography and ECG during shooting were measured by the telemeter method. Results obtained were as follows. Subjects averaged 161.9 cm in height,59.7 kg in weight and 123.4 mmHg in systolic blood pressure. Time for shooting was about 30 seconds on the average, but the shortest time was 15 seconds, and the longest was 50 seconds. There were arrhythmia in 3 subjects at rest ECG. However, there were no differences in the ecocardiographic data between shooters and normal subjects. Arrhythmia disappeared in two subjects during shooting. The heart rate during shooting averaged 110 b/min, but one shooter recorded 180 b/min at maximal level. In summary, Kyudo practice is not so hard for old age shooters, but there is possibility that it builds up blood pressure, because it needs strong muscle activity during shooting. Therefore, old shooters must always take care of their medical condition.
After examining the judging procedures relating to Chinese martial arts demonstrations it has become clear that using the score of the first person as a standard for judging the other participants produces an obvious upward trend in scoring, meaning that the later a person performs the better his or her score is likely to be, and therefore this cannot be considered an acceptable method of scoring. Furthermore, there is no standard for scoring for the larger part of the events; and for some, even if there are standards they are ignored in practice and the afore-said method of scoring is used. As to why there should be an upward trend in scoring, perhaps the judges feel reluctant to give out very high scores at first for fear that a truly exceptional participant will appear later. Therefore, one's order of appearance has a profound effect on one's score, and there is no proper discrimination in scoring. Regarding the reliability of scoring, there is also a problem with large discrepancies in scoring between preliminary and final rounds. The following standardized set of procedures should be adopted: Practitioners of one form should compete in one event, Events without set standards for scoring should be established and judged by persons specializing in that event. Ttraining and checking of judges should be implemented. The number of persons advancing to the finals should be determined by the number of people in the preliminaries. Scoring should be conducted independently and individually. And, most of all, the order of appearance of participants should be decided fairly and impartially. If these things are not done it will probably be impossible to establish this as a competition.