The purpose of this article is to elucidate the significance of the concept of “The Way of Heaven”(Tendo). First, the concept of “The Way of Heaven” in some enlightenment books, such as Shingakugorinsho, etc., is examined. Next, the meaning of “The Way of Heaven” in the secret books of martial arts, such as Heihokadensho, etc., is defined. Through a comparison of these two concepts of “The Way of Heaven” follows, the similarities between the two schools of thoughts in discussed. The results of this article are summarized as follows: 1) Originally “The Way of Heaven” includes not only the rules of nature but also the rules of morals or “The Way of Man” (Jindo). “The Way of Heaven” as found in the enlightenment books, such as Shingakugorinsho, etc., supports the ideology of the Tokugawa Bakufu, and is based on the unification of the three schools of thoughts, Shinto, Confucianism, and Buddhism. 2) “The Way of Heaven” in the secret books of martial arts, such as Heihokadensho, is derived from San-Rue, and permits the unavoidable fight in the cause of justice. This idea was considered suitable for the policy of the Tokugawa Bakufu. According to the written prayer (Kishoumon), “The Way of Heaven” was considered to be a god or buddha. In other words, “The Way of Heaven” in Martial Arts was also considered to have a commonality with both Shintoism and Buddhism. 3) As has been examined in this paper, the idea of “The Way of Heaven” in the enlightenment writings and the martial arts writings of the Edo Period contained various and complex meanings, borrowing from the different philosophical and cultural traditions of the Period. In short, “The Way of Heaven”is a “master key”, which elucidates the commonality of Shinto, Confucian, and Buddhist thoughts, as well as martial arts. Therefore, the philosophical thought of martial arts compares favorably with the three schools of thoughts (Shinto, Confucianism, and Buddhism) through the foundation of “The Way of Heaven”.
The sword is originally used as one of weapons. It also has been a symbol of God since ancient times. In this study the above concept is defined as the thought of swords. According to the fact that swords came from China, the thought of swords is considered to have stem from China also. The purpose of this study is to clarify the attitude towards swords on the thought of swords in Japan and its structure, comparing to the thought of swords in China which is supposed to be the origin. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. The concrete meanings of swords in Japan are to cut off vice and have a power which dominates death, life, happiness and unhappiness; the same to China. 2. The thought has double structure; holy approaches to profan and profan approaches to holy. 3. In China the way of the transcendency on swords connected with God is indirect, whereas in Japan it is direct. While the relation between swords and God is metaphor in China, it is metonymy in Japan. It is concluded that the thought of swords in Japan has been formed with these distinctions in its structure.
To discuss the “Ki-Ken-Tai-no-Ichi” which is a traditional conception in the movements of Kendo, the relationship of “HASSEI” and the respiratory phase with the attack movement of Kendo was studied in Kendo Shomen Dageki. The results were as follows: 1) “KAKEGOE” is shouted for 1.71+0.578 sec and “DATOTSU BUI KOSHO” is shouted for 1.85+0.302 sec in 19 male students. 2) While a moment from disappearance of “KAKEGOE” to “DATOTSU”, the right arm is flexed (0.123 ± 0.035sec) and extended (0.125 + 0.039sec) in 19 male students. 3) The time from the right foot is separated from a floor to “DATOTSU” is statistically different between college students (n=10) and senior high school students (n=10) at the 5% level. 4) The movement pattern that “DATOTSU BUI KOSHO” appears before SINAI is touched the opponent's MEN and the right foot is touched a floor after “DATOTSU” is the same for the elemental school children and the senior high school students and the college students. 5) In “ZANSHIN” after “DATOTSU” the physical tension is maintained until the large volume of air is expired.
The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in attitude toward Judo between university and high school students. Subjects were K. High School boys who were learning Judo in their classes and the freshmen of W. Univ. and T. Univ. students who had practiced Judo in their high school or junior high school. The attitude toward Judo were mesured by use of questionnaire. The data were analyzed by factor analytic techniques. The results are summarized as follows (1) Eight factors consisting attitude toward Judo were extracted from the factor analysis in university students. Seven factors were in the 3rd-year students of high school. Five factors of each group were nearly similar in the factor structure. These results suggested that the attitude toward Judo was much alike in both groups. Further more, it was inferred that participation in Judo classes was a good possibility to maintain the attitude toward Judo after learning. (2) It was recognized that the cognitions to the training effects of mind and body which had been formed through participation in Judo classes were changed and change the dualistic standpoint into the monistic one. Further, it was suggested that the cognition to the aspect of “Budo” in Judo could be deepened with participation in Judo classes. (3) On one side, it was recognized that Judo had a desirable effect on the body and mind. On the other side, it was confirmed that Judo was not high evaluated on brightness, refreshment, gorgeousness in sports. (4) The statistical difference was not recognized in the sum score between university students and high school boys. (In this study, the sum score indicates the total score of the common items of factors that was similarly interpreted in each group.) As this results, after learning Judo, it was guessed that both the evaluation to the aspect of the cognition and the affection have no good possibility to be changed by means of the passage.
The purpose of this study is to obtain the fundamental data concerning the present situation and problems on grading system of Judo in the international level, analyzing how the grading system of Judo which has been created by Jigoro Kano and diffused to foreign countries is understood and operated in Australia which compared to Brazil and Japan. The results were as follows: 1. The method of classification with color belts for Dan-grades is provided similarly in Australia but the one for Kyu-grades is quite different from Brazil, and Japan and subdivided with color lines on belts by ages. 2. The regulations are provided in detail and technical standard is highly required in Australia when compared to other two countries. The concrete points are clearly provided for the promotion by contribution to Judo as supervisor, instructor, team manager and referee. 3. It is provided that any person without experience of competition has a chance to be promoted on condition with longer term than usual promotion. It is also provided that a person with less experience of competition has a chance to be promoted to higher Dan-grades. 4. It is provided that a person who cannot take part in a competition due to the medical handicap has a chance to be promoted on condition with longer term than usual promotion. 5. “The Illustrated Kodokan Judo” is appointed as a text of Judo techniques required for promotion.
Through out the history of Japanese martial arts, relaxation, image training, and concentration are very important factors. These factors are incorporated in the training for martial arts and many practitioners utilizes these techniques in their skills of martial arts. Scientific mental training is a trend that can be found in the sports world. Recently, many countries were able to find success through mental training for the Olympiad. There are, however, few psychological research that reports on the details of the techniques often used in martial arts. The purpose of this research is to review international researches on mental training and to introduce the Japanese Mental. Management Project in sport psychology for the Japan Amature Sports Association. From the review of international studies on mental training, it was found that many sport psychologists from around the world have scientifically studies and researched in the area of Japanese martial arts. Yet, the Japanese are lagging behind in this area. It is the opinion of this researcher that Japanese researchers should also look into the traditional martial arts not only for observation but to apply scientific research into this area that is the heritage of Japan.