Kansei period in Edo era is a kind of time to change for Martial Arts. Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA played an active part mainly in this period as a political leader of the Shogunate or a master of Martial Arts. So, in studying Martial Arts after this period, it is the starting point to clarify his thought of Martial Arts. In this study, I paied attention to the points that he united KITO-RYU-JUDO and KOUOTSU-RYU, and that he made new KOUOTSU-RYU. Summaries were as follows. 1. Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA devoted himself to Seibei SUZUKI's KITO-RYU-JUDO “SHINBU-NOMICHI”It was improved as “michi” which transcended “jutsu” and ruled the world. 2. KOUOTSU-RYU was formed by the founder of “han”. Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA was under the influence of SHINKAGE-YAGYU-RYU and Takuan. So, it was the method to rule the world like SHINKAGE-YAGYU-RYU. Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA revived KOUOTSU-RYU that had formed by Sadatsuna MATSUDAIRA. 3. Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA formed new KOUOTSU-RYU by uniting common points among KITORYU-JUDO “SHINBU-NO-MICHI” and KOUOTSU-RYU. New KOUOTSU-RYU was Martial Arts that assumed actual fighting. Because it needed to master practical skill of Matial Arts in order to realize the method to rule the world. This was his ideal, and it is concluded that it affected Martial Arts that was changed after Kansei period.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the strength of neck flexor and extensor muscles in Judo players (N =48) as compared with those in Rugby players (N=28) and collegiate students (N =28) without regular exercise. The maximum isometric muscle strength of neck flexor and that of extensor were measured using our original equipment. The results were as follows: (1) Muscle strength of neck flexor in Judo players was significantly higher than those in Rugby players and collegiate students. (2) Muscle strength of neck extensor in Judo players was significantly higher than that in collegiate students, but was similar to that in Rugby players. In conclusion, Judo players showed higher muscle strength of neck flexor than Rugby players and collegiate students.
Differences of physical construction between fighting Judo players often exert serious effects on the result of the match. However, some competitions in Japan are carried out regardless of considerating the constitutional differences, especially weight difference. It is important to examine the effects of constitutional differences on the match, since need of the open-weight class is discussed in the international Judo competitions. In this study, the effects of the constitutional differences (height and weight) on the Judo matches were investigated by analysing the success of the all Japan Judo championship competitions from Showa 55th (1980) to Heisei 1st (1989) The maior findings obtained were as follows: 1. There was no significant difference in the number of victories between taller and shorter players in.32,2, matches in which difference of height was appreciated. Slight advantage was found in taller players, when the difference of body height was 6 cm or greater. 2. When the difference of body weight was less than 20kg, there wes no effect on the success of the matches. In the matches with weight difference of 20-40kg, heavier players tended to be superior to lighter players, but the ratio of the success of match was 153: 128, indicating no significant difference. It is clear that when the weight difference was more than 40kg, heavier players was advantageous. 3. Both the weight and the height differences show no effect on the success of the matches at the first half of the tournament (the 1st and 2nd tournaments), but at the second half of the tournament (from 3rd tournament to the final) heavior players were easier to win than lighter players. 4. The main difference was observed in the number of “Ippon”, in the win of the matches between players with superior and inferior constitutions. In summary, it is suggested that most of participants (ca.74% of all) can have an equal opportunity of success in the all Japan championship competition. This may justify the existence of the Judo competition without distinction of weight.
This study was attempted to clarify the skill structure of Kendo in terms of weight distribution on each foot and lateral standing posture during the standard ready position (Chudan-no-kamae). The subjects were 25 male University students, aged 18-23 years and they were divided into two groups: a novice and an expert groups in situations both with and without an opponent. We obtained the following results: 1. The novice group showed larger weight distribution ratio on the right foot than the expert. 2. While the subjects were facing an opponent, more weight was put on the right foot compared with the situation having no opponent. 3. The lateral weight distribution ratio (right/right + left) significantly correlated with the height to the heel elevated and forward slant angle of the body in the situation without the opponent. The ratio also correlated with the antero-posterior distance between two feet in the situation with an opponent. 4. The photogrammetry of the lateral standing posture does not reveal significant postural differences between the situations with an opponent and without an opponent. However, the height of the tip in Shinai differs from situation to situation. 5. The novice group dominated the height to the heel elevated, forward slant angle of the body, anteroposterior distance between the feet and angle of longitudinal axis in the left foot compared with the expert group. These morphological characteristics showing by the Kendoists in different groups may be good indicators for the assessment of the skill level of Kendo.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the biomechanical characteristics of the body weight distribution in relation to differences of skill levels in a adopting the Chudan position. The subjects for this study were 23 male Kendo players having attained their 3rd,4th,5th dan degree of competence. They were 18-23 years old, and had 8-13 years experience. In addition 25 teachers were included in the study. They consisted of 5 male Kendo players with their 6th,7th dan degree who were 33-42 years old with 20-32 years experience,16 male Kendo players with their 8th dan degree who were 54-78 years old with 30-63 years experience and 4 male Kendo players with their 9th dan degree who were 76-81 years old having had 62-70 years experience. 1. It was found in each subject that the direction of the force applied to the platform was not only vertical but in addition in the case of the right foot, the force was applied in the forward directed slightly angled to the right. In the case of the left foot, the force had a vertical and a backward direction angled slightly to the left. 2. The ratio of body weight distributed in the Chudan position differed depending upon whether the measurement were made in a static, dynamic or just-before striking, these were also differences depending upon skill level and age. 1) About fifty percent of the students with their 3rd,4th and 5th dan degree distributed their body weight dominantly to the right foot in the static Chudan position. The other half of them did the reverse. All of the trained Kendo teachers with their 6th and 7th dan degree distributed their body weight to the left foot dominantly in the static Chudan position. On the other hand, all of the trained teacher with their 9th dan degree distributed their weight dominantly to the right foot. It is of interest that of the 16 teachers with their 8th dan degree over half distributed their weight to the left foot. 2) In the dynamic position, all of the subjects showed a tendency more to a right dominant distribution of their body weight. 3) In the position just before the strike, all of the subjects showed a tendency for the dominant distribution of the body weight to be on the left foot. 3. The subjects who distributed their body weight to the right foot dominantly showed a tendency to incline their body more forward in the Chudan position, compared with the subjects who distributed the body weight to the left foot.