The Meiji Restration era was just the time when all Japan was pervaded with the people's desire to abolish the former system and institutions and renovate everything antiquate and out of date, including their old manners and customs. The Japanese fencing with a long proud history of its own was no exception: it was shunned by people under the pretext that it was barbarous. So the fencing masters who had been constant in their devotion to fencing found it difficult to support themselves and their family. Thus idea they hit upon in order to earn their daily bread was to hold fencing shows. The paper is an investigation as to the actual state of income and expenditure accounted for after the fifteen shows of fencing between the year 11 and 19 of Meiji, which were given mainly by the fencing masters of the Kasama clan in Hitashi province (now Ibaraki Prefecture).
The paper investigates the origins of the nonclassified system of traditional Japanese judo tournaments in which competitors have been paired at randam regardless of size, age or ability. The teaching of Jigoro Kano, the founder of judo, and he records of the All Japan Judo Championship tournaments were analyzed. The following results were obtained. 1. The nonclassified or `open category' system of judo tournaments in Japan replaced the former classified system based on skill and age. 2. This change arose from the concern of some Kano's followers who wished to recognize the single strongest judoka' or champion, each year, rather than the eight champions resulting under the earlier classified system. However, such a reform was found to counter Kano's beliefs for such tournaments. 3. Proponents of the new, nonclassified system of tournaments to decide the strongest judoka of the year in Japan intended to completely replace the former classified system. 4. Originally, classification in tournaments were meant to provide greater equality in competition based upon skill and age as dectated by Kano. However, the nonclassified system disregarded Kano's directives.
People in general think easily that they build up their character through physical education and Budo. The thinking like that is based on “mind-body monism” “Body-mind identity” of the oriental idea. The purposes of this study are to clarify the original concepts “mind-body monism” “body-mind identity”, and to consider a view of mind-body on Budo by Michael Polanyi's Theory of Levels. Our study can be summarized as follows; 1. Mind-body monism is a problem of the theory of becoming that “ki” produces everything. But mind and body are not the same thing from the functional point of view. 2. “Body-mind identity” does not mean that body and mind are equal theoretically. It rather means psychologicale xperience( i. e., ecstacy)i n meditation. 3. Polanyi grasps cosmos as Hierarchical Levels. The principles of a higher level depend on a lower level. He recognized that a higher level can control a lower level. But a lower level can not control a higher level. 4. According to his theory, mind (as the principle of a higher level) and body (as the principle of a lower level) are synthesizedb y a Budo activity. And the mind organizedt he followingt wo principles. One is the level of the individual (a lower principle), the other is the level of the parsonal relation (a higher principle). It is hoped that we accomplish a higher level.
“BUGEI-ZUFU-TSUUSHI (Korean, Muye-Tobo-Tongji)” was published in 1790. This has been the most representative book of material arts in Korea. Some sword arts, for example, SOUSHUTOU (Ssangusudo), EITOU (Yedo), WAKEN (Oegum), KOUSENFU (Gyojoenbo), TEITOKUKEN (Jedoggum)(Jedoggum) and HONGOKUKEN (Bongukgum) are found in this book. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between these sword arts and Japan between the ones and China. The Results can be summarized as follows. 1. SOUSYUTOU was affected by WAKOU (Japanese pirates), KOUWA (Japanese prisoners of the Invasion of Korea by Toyotomi Hideyoshi) and the drillmasters of Ming China army in the process of its formation. 2. EITOU was affected by Japanese-Korean trades in the process of its formation. 3. WAKEN and KOUSENFU were affected by CHOUSEN-TSUUSHINSHI (Korean missions to Japan) in the process of their formation. 4. TEITOKUKEN was affected by the drillmasters of Ming China army.5. HONGOKUKEN was affected by the thought of Korean nationalism in those days.
The thought that recognizes swords to be transcendent existed in the ancient times, and the swords had the character of ceremonial outfit. In the Middle Ages, common swords that were used as a practical weapon, also had this thought. The purpose of this study is to consider a view of swords in the Middle Ages from “GUNKIMONOGATARI”, and to make it clear what existed in the bottom of people's consciousness that formed this view, and what is features of this view. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. Image of the myth, that existed in the bottom of people's consciousness, formed a view of swords in the Middle Ages. 2. In the Middle Ages, swords themselves suggested the metaphorical God that existed behind.
In the latter period of Edo era, “shinai-uchikomi-geiko”, the new training method in which swordsmen wearing protectors strike and thrust each other unrestrainedly by means of bamboo swords, became popular and spread in place of the traditional method by means of kata of the school in Kenj utsu. With the propagation of the new method, “taryu jiai”, a match between swordsmen of different schools, which had been put under the taboo, got activated all over the country. There are, however, few detailed investigations into the process except for the Kanto area. The present study was undertaken to make clear how “shinai-uchikomi-geiko” propagated and “taryujiai”got activated in the Iwakuni clan. Major findings are as follows; (1) The trend in kenjutsu, the propagation of “shinai-uchikomi-geiko” and the activation of “taryujiai”by the new method, had extended to the Iwakuni clan at latest in the Tenmei or Kansei period. However at that time all the teachers of kenjutsu-schools refused to adopt the new method, so no one of the bushi-class adopted it and took part in “taryu-jiai” in the clan. (2) With the activation of “taryu-jiai” in the Iwakuni clan, there appeared participants to it in the bushi-class in the latter half of the Bunsei period. Moreover, there appeared teachers of kenjutsu-school who approved to adopt the new method and to take part in “taryu-jiai” in the next Tenpo period. And this became the main method of kenjutsu in the clan. (3) When Yoro-kan (the clan school) was established in the 4th of the Koka period, it was publicly decided to adopt the new method and to practice “taryu-jiai” in the school. At this time it was Katayama-school that defied the decision. Seven years later, however, the new method was adopted in the school in the 1st of the Ansei period. As a result, in all the kenjutsu-schools in the Iwakuni clan the new method came to be used and “taryu-jiai” to be practiced, while existential significance of the traditional kata and schools main-tamed with it became quite small.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of wearing kendo protectors on motor ability. Motor ability tests of power, agility, balance and endurance were administered to kendoists and controls on the condition with or without wearing kendo protectors. The time of “shomen-uchi” was measured by a high speed video and force plate system. The results are as follows; (1) Significant differences were found in the score of controls' and kendoists' standing long jump between conditions of wearing and non-wearing kendo protectors. (2) When the subjects wore the kendo protectors, the score of side step test decreased significantly in both controls and kendoists. (3) No significant differences were obtained in the score of one foot balance test with the condition of wearing and non-wearing kendo protectors between kendoists and controls. The score of dynamic balance test decreased significantly in controls when the kendo protectors were worn. (4) The score of step test in controls decreased significantly when they wore the kendo protectors. (5) From the analysis of high speed video and force plate system, wearing kendo protectors was found to effect moving time between the start of motion by force plate and the motion at which the subjects handled the “shinai”.
In this study, the partial foot pressures, in time of the “Osotogari” motion, of the head of 1st,5th metatarsal and calcaneum of both functional and supporting feet were measured by the force sensor made of carbon fibers; and the biodynamical information concerning the maximum foot pressures and the impulse were obtained. The subjects were seven male university judo players. They were divided into the following three groups: 1) Group A, good at “Osotogari”,2) Group B, not good at “Osotogari”,3) Group C, beginners. The reproducibility of each partial foot pressure and its coming time was high in Groups A and B; while in Group C the antagonism between the parts was lacking, thus impulse being variable in its coming time. The changing of the foot pressures of the functional foot remained constant, especially in the case of the supporting foot, at the time of “Kake” throwing motion, the double-peaked changing of foot pressure was observed in the head of 1st metatarsal, due to the motion of inflame of the upper-body, in each group. In each group the head of 1st metatarsal of the functional foot was apparently greater in its maximum pressure per unit weight, than the same can be said of the impulse. In the functional foot more pressure went forward in Group A, while in Group B more tended to be placed on the head of 1st metatarsal, and Group C tended to place more pressure on the inside half of the calcaneum. In Group A the maximum foot pressure and the impulse of the supporting foot were lower than those in Groups B and C, and the pressure of each part was rather similar in Group A. Therefore, the players in Group A were well ballanced and more pressure was placed forward. In Group B the maximum foot pressure and the impulse tended to be placed on the head of 5th metatarsal and the calcaneum, while in Group C they were placed on the calcaneum and the head of 1st metatarsal.
The purpose of this paper was to investigate the right distance and the elbow angle for producing the most destructive upper reverse straight punch in karate, for which the power of punch and the elbow angle accompanying it at the various distances of sitting and standing positions were measured. The subjects employed for this particular purpose were four male karate practitioners whose rank was above second grade or nidan. In the case of a sitting position, the measurement was taken with the distance between the target and the back of the body of the subject being 50,70,75 cm respectively, whereas in the case of a standing position, the measurement was taken with the distance between the target and the front foot being between 10 and 60 cm and also with the arbitrary distance of Optimum Position. The results are as follows: 1) The upper straight punch given at a sitting position with a distance of 70 cm was proved to indicate the most powerful impact of 73.65 ± 13.76 kg and with a distance varied either increased or reduced, the impact began to decline gradually. 2) The upper reverse straight punch given at a standing position with a distance of 40 cm turned out to indicate the most powerful impact of 101.15+ 8.35 and with a distance varied either increased or reduced, the impact began to diminish. 3) The Optimum Position was found to be at a distance of 37.6+11.8 cm indicating the impact of 108.25+12.03 kg. 4) The elbow angle of the upper reverse straight punch given at a standing position tended to become larger with the distance in between increased within the maximum range of 40 cm. However at the distance of 40,50, and 60 cm respectively, the elbow angle showed such small differences as were shown in the following: 148.5+8.7,149.3+6.2, and 149.8+5.4. 5) The degree of the elbow angle at the time of making contact with the target so as to produce the maximal impact was 145+7.4 for a sitting position,146+3.5 for standing position, and 142.5+ 5.9 for the O. p.of a standing position. 6) For both sitting and standing positions, a slight bending movement was observed before the stretching of the elbow. As a result of the above observation, it was concluded that the elbow angle accompanying the most powerful punch for both sitting and standing positions was proved to be between 140-150 degrees. The slight bending movement of the elbow preceding the streching was observed as the reactive source of power for reinforcing the straight punch following.