The purpose of this study is to discuss and suggest which movements in Judo grappling techniques should be recognized especially for scoring purposes in the case of HANTEI. The results are as follows: 1) There is combative ground-work in order to grapple the opponent and TSUKURI, which is a preparatory movement to grapple the opponent, exists in this combative process. 2) The pinning hold after TSUKURI during grappling techniques in Judo should be recognized as KAKE. 3) Both TSUKURI and KAKE are skills in Judo and both should be recognized for scoring in Judo competitions. 4) To succeed in TSUKURI during grappling techniques means to control the opponent on the mat completely, giving him no opportunity to attack or defend. 5) Skills of TSUKURI on ground-work for scoring are, for example, to take the opponent down to either side of the attacker or roll him over the controller's head when the opponent is moving on to the controller. 6) Another case is when the opponent's trunk is taken and pinned even with the opponent's legs which curl round the controller's leg in defence. Then scoring should be recognized when the opponent is under the controller.
In the Edo era, a Budo trainee who wished to enter a Budo school had to present a written oath before he become a disciple. This thesis considered the substance of a written oath of the Gigen school, which prospered in the Satsuma feudal clan. The first part of the written oath is composed of a promise not to teach the technique and theory to other people. The next part is a note of understanding that the trainee may be punished by God if he breaks his promise. Why did the trainee promise to keep the theory and technique secret ? (1) Students were conferred full masterships by the teacher after under going Violent disciplines. (2) They were educated in skills and theory that included religion. Therefore, they must be disciplined for a long time. (3) Some one who is not disciplined does not understand it because he has not experienced it. When the disciple received full mastershis, it was done in a solemn ceremony with the disciple presenting a written oath to the teacher. At that time the disciple received his license. The entrance ceremony, methods of training and imitation rites for the Gigen school of Budo closely resemble those for the Shingon religion. As the Shingon religion is much older than Budo, this suggests that Tigen Budo was influenced by Shingon.
Tetsushi ABE (The Research Group of Culture of Budo, University of Tsukuba)
Present BUDO has developed as sports that based on characters of competition. But the value of victory or defeat of present BUDO has traditional characters that it had before it formed as sports. In this study, I consider the value of victory or defeat of modern masters of martial arts from the point of thought history, by examining modern KENJUTU-DENSHO. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. As a result of considering the root of the thought, “rise above victory or defeat,” the value of victory or defeat had two sides of characters. 2. One side was that the value of victory or defeat, this was typical quality of SHINKAGE-YAGYURYU, aims principally to pursue victory. This was not the same as that of TAKUAN's that had an effect on SHINKAGE-YAGYU-RYU. In short, this quality formed the original value of this school's. 3. The other side was that the value of victory or defeat, this was typical quality of HEIJYO-MUTEKIRYU, was developed from Confucian view of ethics or morality of masters of martial arts. The cause of this can be said that the core of this school's theory to get victory was “JINGI”, the spirit of Confucianism.
In the Middle ages, Kenjutsu schools were formed by a man of genius who played an active part in the Warring States period. And with this formation, a view of swords that involved skills was formed. This did not exist before the Middle ages. The purpose of this study is to clarify a view of swords in the 16th and 17th centuries. In order to clarify this whole structure, I analyzed the structure that symbolized swords. The results can be summarized as follows. 1. As time passed, symbolic swords became abstract, but the object of representation became concrete. 2. A view of swords in this time can be divided into three classes, those are that of a subconscious awareness, that of common understanding, and that of real activities. The feature of this time is the class of real activities, that is, a view of swords that involved skills. This structure also has relation to mindcontrol.
To investigate the effects of judo-and kendo-training on figer flexion strength (FFS), single FFS (S-FFS)in 2nd fingers (IIs),3rd fingers (IIIs),4th fingers (IVs),5th fingers (Vs), and combined FFS (C-FFS) in II IIIs, III IVs, IV Vs, II III IVs, III IV Vs, II III IV Vs were measured in 19 judo-athletes (average training period: 13 years),30 kendo-athletes (average training period: 13.5 years) and 50 non-athletic students as untrained controls. All the subjects were right-handed male. The isometric FFS were measured at the right angles of PIP joint (s) by the load cell method. The results were summarized as follows: 1) Both the kendo-and the judo-athletes had significant stronger FFS than the controls in all kinds of FFS. 2) The kendo-athletes had significant stronger FFS in their left Vs than in their right Vs, although their C-FFS in the left II III IV Vs was significantly weaker than that in the right II III IV Vs 3) The judo-athletes had significant stronger S-FFS in IIs and IIIs in both hands than the kendo-athletes. No significant difference, however, was found between any C-FFS in the judo-athletes and in the kendo-athletes. 4) There were significant correlations between the grades (dan-i) and S-FFS (IIs) in both hands in the judo-athletes, and the training periods or the grades and left S-FFS (IIs-Vs) in the kendo-athletes. These results suggest distinctive effects of kendo-training on FFS in left hand, especially in left Vs, and those of judo-training on FFS in IIs in both hands.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of grappling and the way of getting points by Japanese national team members competing at All-Japan weight class championships 1989. As a result of analysing the data, the following five statements can be listed as interesting points: 1. In all throwing techniques except ‘Seoinage’, the subjects were getting points by less frequent grappling. 2. In all throwing techniques, the grappling of ‘A cuff’ to ‘A side collar’ was most frequent. 3. The grappling using only ‘Lifting hand’ was frequently used in ‘Khutigari’ and ‘Deasibarai’. 4. In all throwing techniques expect ‘Kosotogari’ the grappling ‘A collar’ by both hands was used frequently. 5. Depending on their characteristics of grappling, throwing techniques can be categorized into the following three groups: a) place the lifting hand on a collar behind uke's neck and shoulder (Utimata, Ohsotogari, Kosotogari, Ohutigari), b) place the lifting hand on a front collar (Seoinage, Deasibarai) and, c) the grabbing using only lifting hand.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the factorial structure of fundamental physical fitness for kendo players. A total of 89 kendo players were selected as subjects for this study. Four morphological measures and 11 motor performance tests were administered to the subjects. Principal factor solution and normal varimax rotation were applied to the correlation matrix which was calculated with 15 test variables. The results were as follows: 1) Fundamental physical fitness of male kendo players was composed of three factors, such as muscular strength, body linearity, and compound. These three factors were considered to explain 55% of physical fitness of male kendo players. 2) Fundamental physical fitness of female kendo players was composed of four factors, such as muscular strength, body linearity, compound, and breadthwise growth. These four factors were considered to be able to explain 62% of physical fitness of female kendo players. 3) The factor of muscular strength could relate to the breadthwise growth for male kendo players, while on female kendo players the factor of muscular strength may not relate to the breadthwise growth.