The word “Dojo” is translation of Sanskrit “bodhi-manda” which originally means the place where Buddha had spritual awakening and has been generally used in the meaning of the place for Buddhists austerities. Later in the Edo era, it came to be accepted as a word indicating the place for practicing bujutsu military arts. In this study, We intened to clarify the historical change of the meaning of the word “Dojo” and that of the structure of the place for practicing bujutsu military arts. In the Edo era, it is certain that they hung “hanging pictures”or “tablets”, but they seldom made Shinto altars. Shinto altars have been prevailed since the end of the Taisho era or the beginning of the Showa era as a part of the national reinforcement policy of the Imperial Eacism which was joined together with the National Shintoisrn.
In the Edo era, HAN-KOU (a kind of school) was founded by HAN as an educational institution to educate BUSHI, and it was spread all over the country during the last part of the Edo era. RIKKYOU-KAN was founded by a master of HAN, Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA, and in there BUSHI was educated comprehensively in literary and martial arts. In this study, special attention has been paid to Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA's martial arts education in RIKKYOU-KAN. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. Before RIKKYOU-KAN was founded by Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA, the founder of HAN, Sadatsuna MATSUDAIRA, had founded the school for literary and martial arts. 2. In RIKKYOU-KAN, martial arts education was considered very seriously, and Sadanobu MATSUDAIRA adopted martial arts by Sadatsuna MATSUDAIRA as well as his own martial arts. Furthermore, newly developed martial arts were also adoped in order to enrich martial arts education. 3. In RIKKYOU-KAN, the way to complain of BUSHI's honorable mind or economic situation was adopted as a policy to encourage martial arts, and they succeeded in finding capable low-class BUSHI beyond classes. This had great effects on low-class BUSHI, and gave them chances to play an active part after the Kansei period
The Taihei-Shinkyo-Ryu (Kenjyutsu School) was founded by Wakana Shinkyosai, a masterless Samurai (Ronin), in 1778. This study aimed at explaining the situation behind Taihei-Shinkyo-Ryu, one of the Military Arts schools, among Hachioji-Sennin-Doshin. Results are summarized as follows: 1. At the beginning of the. Edo Period, a group of Ronin (who were the last Takeda followers from the Kai District), were deployed at the crucial points in Hachioji for the defense of the Edo Castle by the Tokugawas. They were composed of three classes (Senninkashira, Kumikashira and Hiradoshin), and had to practice military arts. 2. After the Kansei Era, the Tokugawas encouraged Sennin-Doshin to practice martial arts, and at that time Wakana Shinkyosai taught his philosophy to Hachioji-Sennin-Doshin. In case of Hachioji-Sennin-Doshin, the number of students was as follows: (for example, in case of Wakana Seishinsai >Shinkyosai's son< ) Senninkashira had 16, Kumikashira 11 and Hiradoshin 36. In this way, members from all classes practiced Taihei-Shinkyo-Ryu. 3. The best student of this school was Shiono Tekisai, from Kumikashira. He spread the school philosophy to all classes of Sennin-Doshin. For example, during every winter, he practiced martial arts early in the morning with his students for about 50 days. The Dojo (practicing hall) was in the open air. It was so cold that they got their hands chapped, but they devoted themselves to practicing. Then, his Dojo came to be supported by Senninkashira. And some of students were selected to demonstrate Kenjyutsu in front of the Tokugawa Shogun and were given awards. 4. The philosophy was derived from Confucianism. The parents of students needed it for the education of their children. They wanted their children to become the students (Nyumon) at the age of 16. 5. Many Hiradoshin who lived in the village were farmers. So they harbored ill feeling toward Samurai who lived near the Edo Castle. But on the other hand, they had a dream to be promoted to higher classes. 6. Specially, in the Tama District, there ware a lot of Ronin who came from the Kai District. They continued to practice Kenjyutsu as the followers of the Takeda Clan, despite the fact that the practice of Kenjyutsu had been prohibited in the village. They were thought to be Samurai who had practiced Kenjyutsu. 7. And Hachioji-Sennin-Doshin wanted to be recognized as Samurai, so Shiono Tekisai set up his school with the Hachioji-Sennin-Doshin and became the chief mentor in many areas around Hachioji.
We noticed “Hokushin Ittoryu”, among several kenjutsu schools, which tried to re-build the sustem of techniquesa nd constracted them analytically. But in this essay, we have examinedt he kenjutesu-theory of Sugane Kubota who was a contemporary of Shusaku Chiba (the founder of “Hokushin Ittoryu”) and left enormous writings. Particularly we have studied, from the viewpoint of the history of athletic techniques, the features of the fundamentals of techniques which are the basis of the sustem of techniques. As a result, we have found the two faces; one is the part which tried to build the sustem of techniques consciously, that is, the part which changed from pre-modern (Edo era) kendo into modern (Meiji era) one, and the other in the part which could not get rid of the traditional “Kata-kenjutsu”. The results of the former are as follows (1) Not only feet position but also posture was right in the opposition to the opponent, and the direction of the sword was straight to the center of the opponent. (2) “Te-no-uchi in striking was similar to “pushing-cut” rather than “pulling-cut”. (3) The course of striking from the front along the central line to the opponent was proposed more mainly than from the right or left side. And continuous strikings were encouraged. The results of the latter are as follows: (1) The position of the sword was limited to the three; “jodan-no-kamae” “chudan-no-kamae”, and “gedannokamae”. And jodan-no-kamae”, in which the height of the point of the sword is fixed between the nose and mouth of the opponent, was the most basic. (2) The footwork was “ayumi-ashi” (walking step). (3) We guessed that swinging up was done without changing the condition of holding sword of the first posture. (4) The elbow joints were stretched more forward in holding the sword than modern kendo. (5) The follow-through of weight transfer after striking was not made unlike the present kendo, and it was directed to return to the former position soon. (6) “Kanemen-Zuki” was adopted, which was widely used in spear-fighting. It showed a tendency to the techniqueso f practical and comprehensivem ilitary arts. Thus, Kubota's kenjutsu-theory has some characteristics of the transitional age from pre-modern to modern theory. But it does not reach the stage which breaks with the traditional “kata-kenjutsu” and constructs the system of techniques.
The purpose of this study was to determine the quality (KAKEGOE, DATOTSUBUIKOSYO), frequency and length of the shout on Kendo Match. A total of 49 Matches of Fukui-governor cup all-Japan Kendo tournament was analyzed. The number of Match players were fifty and the average of their DANI was 6.42±0.49 DAN. The results were as follows: 1) A 88.4 percentage of DATOTSU (the striking movement) were associated with DATOTSUBUIKOSYO. DATOTSUBUIKOSYO existed in all YUKO (valid) DATOTSU. There was not KAKEGOE after shouting DATOTSUBUIKOSYO of YUKO DATOTSU. 2) The percentage of KAKEGOE to Match Time was 3-7% and that of DATOTSUBUIKOSYO was 4-11%. A total of percentage of the shouts to Match Time was 8-15%. 3) The existence of KAKEGOE hailing to each other was confirmed. 4) The length of KAKEGOE was 0.54 sec. and that of DATOTSUBUIKOSYO was 2.28 sec. 5) The length of DATOTSUBUIKOSYO of YUKO DATOTSU was significantly longer than that of the other DATOTSUBUIKOSYO (p <0.001). 6) The length of KAKEGOE during Kendo Match was shorter than that of the experimental DATOTSU in laboratory. Contrary to KAKEGOE, the length of DATOTSUBUIKOSYO of YUKO DATOTSU during Kendo Match was longer than that in laboratory. These results lead to the following suggestions: 1) The concentration of the player on the Match (5min.) should be higher to the level of that on the prolongation (3min.). 2) It may be that DATOTSUBUIKOSYO involves the signification of the demonstration of the victory
The purpose of this study was clarify the relationship between fundamental physical fitness and athletic performances in university judo players. A total of 34 items measuring fundamental physical fitness were examined in 46 university judo players. At the same time, types and numbers of throwing techniques, grappling, time intervalbetween performed techniques, etc. were recorded in 71 athletic performances. Correlational analysis was appliedto the data which were the difference between physical fitness and athletic performances of the two players. The following results were obtained : 1) Those who have poor length growth used more “Seoinage ”and “Ippon-seoinage”. 2) Those who have excellent length growth used more “Uchimata”, and those who have excellent width growthused more “Haraigoshi”. 3) In grappling, those who have excellent length growth, grappled front lapel with pulling arm, and rear colloror back with push arm. 4) Significant correlation was found in morphological featue than motor ability. 5) No significant correlation was found between the time interval among performed techniques and fundamentalphysical fitness. 6) Significant correlation was found between the effectiveness of performed techniques and grip strength. 7) Signiaicant canonical correlation were found between pysical fitness and types of techniques, pushing arm,effectiveness of performed techniques, pulling arm, time interval among techques and area performedtechniques, in the order.
Study on the effect of physical constructional differences on Judo match in quite interesting in connection with problems of continuance of the open-category and meaning of competition without considering weight difference. In our previous report on this matter, effects of height and weight differences between competing Judo contestants were examined mainly from viewpoint of consequence of competition. In this paper, in order to further examine the effects, relationship between physical constructional differences and details of competition, especially Judo technique and duration of contest required for victory, was studied based on the analysis of the results of the all Japan championship competitions from Showa 55th to Heisei 1st. The following results were obtained: 1) Leg technique was most frequently used for victory in either taller or shorter players. Significant difference between numbers of victories of the taller and shorter players was due mainly to the number of leg techniques. 2) In the case with weight difference, significant difference in the number of all techniques for victory was observed where heavier players were always advantageous. Furthermore, physically superior players most frequently obtained the victory by using yokoshiho-gatame, while physically inferior players most often obtained it by kamishiho-gatame. 3) Uchimata was the most effective technique to get the victory among throwing techniques. 4) The mean match time required for victory by ippon was similar between taller and shorter players. Lighter players often required prolonged match time to get victory rather than heavier players did. 5) In correlation between weight difference and the required match time, a very small negative r value was obtained: a very small positive r value for throwing technique and a small negative r value for katame-waza. From the results obtained in this study, effective techniques for the physically superior or inferior, for victory were clarified.