The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) To introduce a brief biography of admiral Isamu Takeshita and his character. (2) To introduce the features of the “Martial Arts Diary by Admiral I. Takeshita” (MADT), a recently discovered historical document deciphered by the present author. (3) To further historical research about aikido from December 1925 to about 1928, primarily using the Diary. Briefly, the main conclusions were as follows: (1) Takeshita was born in Kagoshima, Kyusyu, in 1869, and died in 1949. He was promoted to Admiral in 1923. In December 1925, he met Morihei Ueshiba who taught him a martial arts called Daitoryu-aikijyujyutu. From that time, he supported in the development of his martial art. (2) MADT refers to the abridged diary of references made to martial arts from the original diary by the present author. (3) Ueshiba taught Daitoryu-aki-jujyutu, not Ueshibaryu-aiki-bujyutu, to Takeshita in about 1926. Takeshita was much impressed by Ueshiba, and founded the circle called Aioikai in order to support him. Then they changed the name from Daitoryu-aiki-jujyutu to Aioiryu-aiki-jujyutu. We can understand from this that it became independent from the Daitoryu. (4) Ueshiba's family moved to Tokyo in October 1927, not Feburary as Kisshyomaru Ueshiba has written in his books.
Sekiguchi-ryu of Takeda family was a kenjyutsu-school transmitted in the Yoshino-river area in the province of Awa. In this school “taryu-jiai” was practiced vigorously with the new training method, “shinai-uchikomi-geiko”, in the latter period of Edo era. Almost all of the “densho-rui”, the traditional writings, of the Sekiguchi-school are owned by the descendants now. There were many martial arts schools whose “densho-rui” have been lost by now, so the Sekiguchi-school seems to be a quite important case for us to know the whole “densho-rui” of martial arts school. In this paper I intended to clarify the kind of “densho-rui”, their awarding order, and the relation berween the new training method and the traditional awarding order of the Sekiguchi school during the period of shifting from the old training method to the new one. The results can be summarized as follows: (1) The number of the kind of “densho-rui” in this school which are confirmed by now is about fifty. Among these, eleven kinds of “denjyu-jyo” and “sho-jyo” which were from “Sekigwchi-ryu-hachikajyo”to “Injyu”, formed the traditional awarding order of this school, and were transmitted orderly to the disciples. (2) Six Kinds of “senkyo-jyo” were “sho-jyo” to recognize the six classes of this school which were established at the end of the 18th century. The skillfullness of the technique of the new training method regarded considerably important object to recognize the classes. (3) The traditional awarding order of the Sekiguchi-school was not changed or abolished after the establishment of the six classes. Nevertheless the significance of the traditional “waza” and awarding order based on it disapeared gradually. (4) “Toritate-seido” of the Sekiguchi-school was a characteristic form to instruct the disciples and to operate the martial arts school, and had a kind of character of “iemoto-seido”. “Toritate-seido” had been made because the new trainning method came to be practiced mainly in the Sekiguchi-school.
Tacteristics of three kinds of Japanese bows using energy transfer efficiency. Energy transfer efficiency measured by shooting machine and subjects (two males, called subject A and subject B) in the experiment. The subject A was 43 years of age,178 centimeter in height,72 kilogram in weight, with 23 years of training experience and 5 dan degree. The subject was 21 years of age,167 centimeter in height,67 kilogram in weight, with 6 years of training experience and 3 dan degree. The relation between energy transfer efficiency and impulse of torque added to the grip of bow was also clarified. The results were as follows: 1) Energy transfer efficiency saturation point were about 7kgF·m·ms (impulse of torque) in bamboobow,4 or 5kgF·m·ms (impulse of torque) in glassfiber-bow and carbonfiber-bow. 2) Energy transfer efficiency was constant a range of drawing from 0.8m to 0.9m in three bows. It is possible to compare energy transfer efficiency of Japanese bows in this drawing range. 3) Energy transfer efficiency of bamboo-bow was 53.7±0.8%, glassfiber-bow was 55.5±0.6%, carbonfiber-bow was 57.9±0.5%. Each value were significantly differece (p<0.01). It is possible to valuate mechanical characteristics of Japanese bows using energy transfer efficiency. 4) The traveling time of the torque added to the grip of fiber-bows to both sides was faster than bamboo-bow. As a result of this, energy transfer efficiency of fiber-bows was higher than bamboo-bow. 5) In the experiment by subject, energy transfer efficiency of bamboo-bow shooting by subject A was higher subject B (p< 0.01). The analyzation method with energy transfer efficiency is useful for the valuation of shooting technique.
The purpose of this study is to determine the locomotory floor patterns for the competitors is the All Japan Kendo Championships. By using a direct linear transformation method, it was possible to depict a trace of the locomotion distance and speed for the competiors in the match area. It was also possible to determine exact locomotor movement of offensive players as they scored an effective hit (YUKO DATOTSU). The results were as follows: 1. The Kendo players tended to use the central part of the match area rather than the corners or sides. This tendency was more conspicuous in more highly skilled players. 2. The mean and standard deviation of the movement speeds in all matches were 1.134-0.12m/sec. Almost 71.7% of the time in matches was characterized by locomotion of less than 1 m/sec. 3. Irrespective of gender, total distance travelled during a match of high skill level players was shorter than that during a match of lower skill level players. In general, female used longer locomotion floor patterns than males. 4. The locations in the match area where the YUKO DATOTSU points are scored tended to be in the central portions of the area, while the locations forfinish-up posture (ZANSHIN) tended to be shown in the outer area. 5. The distance travelled after making a YUKO DATOTSU was remarkably longer than that travelled before making the hit. This tendency was more conspicuous in forehead hit (MEN-WAZA) than in forearm hit (KOTE-WAZA).